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16 diciembre 2014 2 16 /12 /diciembre /2014 20:38
Expectaculares petroglifos en cuevas Werehpai al sur de Surinam

Petroglyphs in caves near the village Kwamalasamutu

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Petroglifos en cuevas cerca del pueblo de Kwamalasamutu en el sur de Surinam, no lejos de la frontera con Brasil.
Kwamalasamutu significa bambú y arena, que son a la vez característico del río Sipaliwini con sus numerosas playas de arena y bambú agitado al viento. Los indígenas TRIO son tímidos pero agradables. Viven de la caza, la pesca y la agricultura de tala y quema.
El pueblo se compone de más de 9 comunidades indígenas diferentes, que viven en paz unos con otros bajo la jefatura de Asongo Alalaparoe.
El Iwaana Saamu Rainforest Lodge está situado a 20 minutos a pie de la aldea Kwamalasamutu. Cerca del Lodge se hallan las cuevas de Werepai con sus impresionantes 350 petroglifos. Estos petroglifos tienen entre 4.200 y 5.000 años de antigüedad.
Antes de 2004, para el conjunto de Suriname, eran conocidos sólo 192 petroglifos. Con el descubrimiento de Werepai ese número se ha duplicado a 505 petroglifos.
Esta área es también lugar de anidación del Gallito de las Rocas (Rupicola rupicola).

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Kwamalasamutu is situated in the south of Suriname, not far from the Brazilian border.
Kwamalasamutu means bamboo and sand, which are both characteristic of the Sipaliwini River with its many sand beaches and waving bamboo. The indigenous Trio’s are shy but friendly. They live from hunting, fishing and slash and burn agriculture.
The village consists of more than 9 different indigenous communities, who live in peace with each other under granman (chief) Asongo Alalaparoe.
The Iwaana Saamu Rainforest lodge is beautifully situated on a 20 minutes boottrip away from the village of Kwamalasamutu. Nearby the lodge the caves of Werepai are situated with its impressive 350 petroglyphs. These petroglyphs are between 4200 and 5000 year old.
Before 2004 for the whole of Suriname only 192 petroglyphs were known. With the discovery of Werepai that number has more than doubled to 505 petroglyphs.
This area is also the nesting ground for the Cock of the Rock (Rupicola rupicola).

Suriname's rainforest: journey to the back of beyond ...

caribbean-beat.com/issue-99/journey-back-beyond

I am flying from Paramaribo to Kwamalasamutu, an Amerindian village near Suriname's ... Eight years ago, a local Trio man stumbled upon a complex of cave dwellings a ... a trove of more than 300 pre-Columbian petroglyphs carved into granite. ... I am greeted at the airstrip by a local Trio Indian who is employed by the ..

[PDF]Kwamalasamutu 4 day tour The area - ATBC 2008

www.atbc2008.org/.../4-day-Kwamalasamutu-ATBC...

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In 2000, more than 313 petroglyphs and shards
of pottery were discovered in a cave system near
the Trio village of Kwamalasamutu in Suriname.
The site offers the most concentrated set of
petroglyphs ever recorded in the Amazonian
basin. To protect this cultural heritage, the Trio
people have established a sanctuary around
these caves and are now looking to use them as
an opportunity to develop sustainable
ecotourism. http://www.conservation.org
© Trond Larsen

 

Tres semanas de exploración del suroeste Suriname, en 2010, revelaron 1.300 especies excepcionales, incluyendo 46 que son nuevas para la ciencia, en una zona con una rica historia biológica y cultural y potencial para el desarrollo del ecoturismo

Enero de 2012. Una expedición científica en uno de los últimos bosques tropicales prístinos del mundo ha revelado increíble diversidad de especies y patrimonio cultural extraordinario, según Conservation International (CI), que reporta los resultados de un estudio científico en el suroeste de Suriname que documentó casi 1.300 especies, incluyendo 46 especies que pueden ser nuevas para la ciencia.

Durante el estudio, los científicos también observaron extensos petroglifos en una cueva cerca del pueblo de Kwamalasamutu, en un sitio conocido como Werehpai, que CI -Surinam está trabajando con las comunidades locales para preservar y promover el ecoturismo.
Descubierto en 2000, el sitio Werehpai es el asentamiento humano más antiguo conocido situado en el sur de Surinam. Investigaciones recientes y fechados de radiocarbono en el lugar indican que la primera señal de estancia data de cinco mil años; el sitio ofrecen el conjunto más concentrado de petroglifos jamás registrado en la cuenca amazónica.

Annette Tjon Sie Fat, Directora Ejecutiva de CI-Surinam cuyo equipo se encargó de los trabajos y planificación de la conservación, dijo, "la naturaleza prístina de la zona Kwamalasamutu y su patrimonio cultural la convierten en un destino único para los turistas más aventureros, que disfrutan de senderismo a través de la densa selva para descubrir la flora y la fauna. CI-Surinam y los nativos Trío esperan desarrollar además un sitio de ecoturismo, mientras que las recomendaciones de la RAP ayudarán a la comunidad a gestionar y mantener el santuario de 18.000 hectáreas que crearon en la región, alrededor de las increíbles cuevas de petroglifos de Werehpai".

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Three-week survey of southwest Suriname reveals 1300 exceptional species, including 46 that are new to science, in an area with rich biological and cultural history and potential for ecotourism development

January 2012. A scientific expedition into one of the world's last pristine tropical forests has revealed incredibly diverse species and extraordinary cultural heritage, according Conservation International (CI), announcing the results of a scientific survey in southwest Suriname that documented nearly 1,300 species, including 46 species which may be new to science.

During the survey, scientists also observed extensive cave petroglyphs near the village of Kwamalasamutu, in a site known as Werehpai, which CI-Suriname is working with local communities to preserve and promote for ecotourism. Discovered as recently as 2000, the Werehpai site is the oldest known human settlement located in southern Suriname. Recent investigations and radiocarbon dates at the site indicate that the first sign of inhabitation was five-thousand years ago; they offer the most concentrated set of petroglyphs ever recorded in the Amazonian basin.

CI-Suriname Executive Director Annette Tjon Sie Fat, whose team commissioned the survey and will incorporate the research into conservation planning said, "The Kwamalasamutu area's pristine nature and cultural heritage make it a unique destination for more adventurous tourists, who enjoy trekking through the dense rainforest to discover flora and fauna. CI-Suriname and the Trio are hoping to further develop a niche market ecotourism site here, while the recommendations from the RAP will help the community to manage and maintain the 18,000 ha sanctuary they created around the region's incredible Werehpai petroglyph caves."

The 2010 RAP survey was coordinated by CI's RAP in partnership with CI-Suriname, Amazon Conservation Team, Anton De Kom University of Suriname, Suriname Forestry Service, Panthera, The Nature Conservation Division, and was made possible by a generous grant from the Alcoa Foundation.

The RAP team and CI President Russ Mittermeier will be heading back to Southern Suriname in March to continue the exploration of this pristine and globally important region.

Escarabajo del estiércol hembra Coprophanaeus lancifer de Suriname central con ácaros foréticos en su cabeza © Conrad PDT Gillett Lancifer Coprophanaeus es uno de los escarabajos del estiércol más grandes del hemisferio occidental, alcanzando una longitud de hasta 5 cm. Es un insecto muy voluminoso y fuerte que se adorna con un brillo azul o púrpura metálico llamativo (muy raramente verde). Este escarabajo es tan fuerte que es casi imposible de mantener un espécimen vivo en la mano. La especie está muy extendida en la cuenca amazónica donde prefiere alimentarse de carroña de vertebrados en lugar de estiércol. Tanto los machos como las hembras de esta especie tienen un cuerno en la cabeza, que se utilizan en peleas territoriales por madrigueras con otros escarabajos. Los escarabajos cavan sus madrigueras debajo de los cadáveres de animales, y es aquí donde los estados inmaduros del escarabajo desarrollan. Otras adaptaciones a este modo de vida incluyen: piernas muy fuertes con dentículos alineados que ayudan al escarabajo a cavar madrigueras en el suelo, y dientes afilados en el clípeo (frente de la cabeza), lo que probablemente ayude a razgar la carroña en descomposición y formar bolas de cría con ella .................................................................... ............................................  Female Coprophanaeus lancifer from central Suriname with phoretic mites on its head © Conrad P D T Gillett	 Coprophanaeus lancifer is one of the largest scarab dung beetles in the western hemisphere, reaching a length of up to 5cm. It is an incredibly bulky and strong insect that is adorned with a striking metallic blue or purple sheen (very rarely green). This beetle is so strong that it is quite impossible to hold a live specimen in your hand. The species is widespread in the Amazon basin where it prefers to feed on vertebrate carrion rather than dung, which is eaten by most dung beetles. Both the males and females of this species bear a horn on the head, which they use in territorial fights over burrows with other beetles. The beetles dig their burrows underneath animal carcasses, and this is where the immature stages of the beetle develop. Other adaptations to this mode of life include:     very strong legs lined with teeth that help the beetle to dig burrows into the ground, and      sharp teeth on the clypeus (front of the head), which probably help the beetle to tear at the decomposing carrion and to form brood balls from it

Escarabajo del estiércol hembra Coprophanaeus lancifer de Suriname central con ácaros foréticos en su cabeza © Conrad PDT Gillett Lancifer Coprophanaeus es uno de los escarabajos del estiércol más grandes del hemisferio occidental, alcanzando una longitud de hasta 5 cm. Es un insecto muy voluminoso y fuerte que se adorna con un brillo azul o púrpura metálico llamativo (muy raramente verde). Este escarabajo es tan fuerte que es casi imposible de mantener un espécimen vivo en la mano. La especie está muy extendida en la cuenca amazónica donde prefiere alimentarse de carroña de vertebrados en lugar de estiércol. Tanto los machos como las hembras de esta especie tienen un cuerno en la cabeza, que se utilizan en peleas territoriales por madrigueras con otros escarabajos. Los escarabajos cavan sus madrigueras debajo de los cadáveres de animales, y es aquí donde los estados inmaduros del escarabajo desarrollan. Otras adaptaciones a este modo de vida incluyen: piernas muy fuertes con dentículos alineados que ayudan al escarabajo a cavar madrigueras en el suelo, y dientes afilados en el clípeo (frente de la cabeza), lo que probablemente ayude a razgar la carroña en descomposición y formar bolas de cría con ella .................................................................... ............................................ Female Coprophanaeus lancifer from central Suriname with phoretic mites on its head © Conrad P D T Gillett Coprophanaeus lancifer is one of the largest scarab dung beetles in the western hemisphere, reaching a length of up to 5cm. It is an incredibly bulky and strong insect that is adorned with a striking metallic blue or purple sheen (very rarely green). This beetle is so strong that it is quite impossible to hold a live specimen in your hand. The species is widespread in the Amazon basin where it prefers to feed on vertebrate carrion rather than dung, which is eaten by most dung beetles. Both the males and females of this species bear a horn on the head, which they use in territorial fights over burrows with other beetles. The beetles dig their burrows underneath animal carcasses, and this is where the immature stages of the beetle develop. Other adaptations to this mode of life include: very strong legs lined with teeth that help the beetle to dig burrows into the ground, and sharp teeth on the clypeus (front of the head), which probably help the beetle to tear at the decomposing carrion and to form brood balls from it

http://cryptoforest.blogspot.com/2010/12/pre-columbian-amazonian-rock-art.html

Amazonian rock 'art', in the form of petroglpyphs, are concentrated in the mountainous parts of its northern range, from Columbia to the Guyana's and Venezuela. Their function remains obscure and there does not seem to exist a systematic overview. One of the most impressive sites is Werehpai in South West Surinam. The site was discovered and named by a Trio named Kamanja was also part of the excavation crew. The site holds 313 petroglyphs. The fact that in all of Surinam there are 192 other petroglyphs known, distributed across 29 sites, gives a clue about Werehpai's magnificence. Charcoal and pottery found at the site have been carbon-dated as 4200 to 5000 years old.

 
 
 
 
 


 
The most famous site is the Venezuelan Caverna da Petra Pintada, the 2nd image shows a marvellous matrix-like structure on the right. The last 2 are from Venezuela but from other parts of the country. This is a great website with many pics in a for me unreadable language.

 
 
 



 
Taken from Hanlon's 'in trouble again'.
 
Brancusian if anything.
The oldest reference that I am aware of is "Notes of a botanist on the Amazon & Andes 
being records of travel on the Amazon and its tributaries, the Trombetas, Rio Negro, Uaupés, Casiquiari, Pacimoni, Huallaga and Pastasa : as also to the cataracts of the Orinoco, along the eastern side of the Andes of Peru and Ecuador, and the shores of the Pacific, during the years 1849-1864" by botanist Richard Spruce whose observations (and illustrations) are perfectly clear:
 
Although we have no elements where from to determine positively the date and mode of execution of the picture-writings, those questions seem to me to have been involved in unnecessary mystery. The instruments used in scraping such deep lines in the granite were probably chips of quartz crystal, which were the hardest cutting-instruments possessed by the aborigines of South America. In the Amazonian plain I know of but two extensive deposits of large rock-crystals one of which is a good way up the Rio Branco, and the other is at the foot of Mount Duida, near the village of Esmeralda, therefore in the immediate neighbourhood of the Casiquiari. I know also of but one such deposit on the Pacific side of the Andes, namely, in the hills of Chongon near Guayaquil; yet pieces of quartz, some of which have served as knives, others as lance- or arrow-heads, are found strewed about the sites of ancient towns and settlements through several degrees of latitude. Whatever the instrument used by the Indians of the Casiquiari, it is difficult to assign any limit to the time required for the execution of the figures; but any one who has seen an Indian patiently scraping away for months at a bow or a lance before bringing it to the desired symmetry and perfection, or who knows that it has taken a lifetime to fashion and bore the white stone which the Uaupes Indian wears suspended from his neck, will understand that time is no object to an Indian. I can fancy I see the young men and women sitting in the cool of the morning and evening, but especially in the moonlight nights, and amusing themselves by scratching on the rock any figure suggested by the caprice of the moment. A figure once sketched, any one, even a child, might aid in deepening the outlines. Indeed, the designs are often much in the style of certainly not at all superior to those which a child of five years old in a village school in England will draw for you on its slate; and the modern inhabitants of the Casiquiari, Guainia, etc., paint the walls of their houses with various coloured earths in far more artistic designs. 
Having carefully examined a good deal of the so-called picture-writing, I am bound to come to the conclusion that it was executed^by the ancestors of Indians who at this day inhabit the region where it is found ; that their utensils, mode of life, etc., were similar to those still in use ; and that their degree of civilisation was certainly not greater probably less than that of their existing descendants. The execution of the figures may have ranged through several centuries, a period which in the existence of a savage people is but a year in that of the highly-civilised nations of modern Europe. In vain shall we seek any chronological information from the Indian, who never knows his own age, rarely that of his youngest child, and who refers all that happened before his own birth to a vague antiquity, wherein there are no dates and rarely any epochs to mark the sequence of events.



 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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  • Biólogo desde hace más de treinta años, desde la época en que aún los biólogos no eran empleados de los abogados ambientalistas. Actualmente preocupado …alarmado en realidad, por el LESIVO TRATADO DE(DES)INTEGRACIÓN ENERGÉTICA CON BRASIL
  • Biólogo desde hace más de treinta años, desde la época en que aún los biólogos no eran empleados de los abogados ambientalistas. Actualmente preocupado …alarmado en realidad, por el LESIVO TRATADO DE(DES)INTEGRACIÓN ENERGÉTICA CON BRASIL

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