King Menes built Memphis on the Nile's flood plain. He constructed a gigantic dam that would divert the annual inundating floods that made the Nile delta so fertile.
The ancient name for the land of the Nile was, KMT. The hieroglyphic symbols are commonly interpreted as, The Land of Black Dirt. KMT hieroglyphics should be read, left to right: a yarn winding bobbin, a half circle, Horus in the form of a hawk, and a dam. The meaning, the story of the rise of two sciences, communication, and irrigation dams.
Menes: el primer Faraón
He is also thought to be the Pharaoh Narmer; however, there is no definitive ... he constructed a gigantic dam that would divert the annual inundating floods that
Boleslaw Prus - 1910 - Egipte
Menes built the city of Men-nofre, or Memphis. The original name, Hikuptah, means "home of the soul of Ptah." Menes built this city on an earlier site known as the White Wall, located in the center of the White Kingdom, or the Upper Kingdom. It was built on the west side of the Nile only a few miles from present day Cairo. This city was built here to take advantage of the northern breezes from the Mediterranean that blew across the otherwise desert land of Egypt.
In order to have the city exactly where he wanted it, King Menes built Memphis on the Nile's flood plain. In order to have it on the flood plain and still avoid the water overflow, he constructed a gigantic dam that would divert the annual inundating floods that made the Nile delta so fertile.
Menes the 1st Pharaoh
King Menes is shrouded in mystery that may be lost in the folds of history forever. He is considered by many scholars to be the first pharaoh to rule Egypt and the first pharaoh of the Dynasty I period. He is also thought to be the Pharaoh Narmer; however, there is no definitive evidence one way or the other. Today, it still remains unclear as to whether these two names represent one or two persons. Dates of King Menes' reign also range widely, but there is a fair amount of consensus that his reign was between c. 3000 B.C. and c. 3100 B.C. It is thought that he ruled for over 60 years.
Also under debate, but still generally accepted, is the fact that King Menes succeeded in uniting Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt making him the first pharaoh of both kingdoms. If this is true, he would be responsible for ushering in the First Dynasty.
Known rulers in the history of Egypt for the First Dynasty are as follows:
|Narmer/Menes(?)||c. 32nd century (?)||Mainstream opinion identifies Narmer with Menes, however a minority of scholars identify Menes with Hor-Aha.|
|Hor-Aha||starting 3080 ± 30 B.C. (p = 0.32)|
|Djer||c. 3073–3036 B.C. 41 years|
|Merneith (mother of Den)||3008? 2946–2916 B.C.|
|Den||2975–2935 or 2928–2911 B.C. 19 to 50 years (40 years B.C.)|
|Anedjib||2916–2896 B.C. 20 years|
|Semerkhet||2912–2891 B.C.? 20 years|
|Qa'a||2906–2886 B.C.? 30 years|
Information about this dynasty is derived from a few monuments and other objects bearing royal names, the most important being the Narmer palette and macehead as well as Den and Qa'a king lists. No detailed records of the first two dynasties have survived, except for the terse lists on the Palermo stone. The account in Manetho's Aegyptiaca contradicts both the archeological evidence and the other historical records: Manetho names nine rulers of the First Dynasty, only one of whose names matches the other sources, and offers information for only four of them. The hieroglyphs were fully developed by then, and their shapes would be used with little change for more than three thousand years.
Large tombs of pharaohs at Abydos and Naqada, in addition to cemeteries at Saqqara and Helwan near Memphis, reveal structures built largely of wood and mud bricks, with some small use of stone for walls and floors. Stone was used in quantity for the manufacture of ornaments, vessels, and occasionally, for statues. Tamarix – tamarisk, salt cedar was used to build boats such as the Abydos Boats. One of the most important indigenous woodworking techniques was the ﬁxed Mortise and tenon joint. A ﬁxed tenon was made by shaping the end of one timber to ﬁt into a mortise (hole) that is cut into a second timber. A variation of this joint using a free tenon eventually became one of the most important features in Mediterranean and Egyptian shipbuilding. It creates a union between two planks or other components by inserting a separate tenon into a cavity (mortise) of the corresponding size cut into each component."