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The division and classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some case are unclear as the result of migrations, also cultural and linguistic influences ...

Ubud-Kids.jpg

Kids in en:Ubud, en:Bali, en:Indonesia. Taken by en:User:Merbabu. Sept 2004

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Indonesians#/media/File:Ubud-Kids.jpg


Hay más de 300 grupos étnicos en Indonesia. 200 millones de habitantes de ésos grupos étnicos son de ascendencia indonesia nativa.

El grupo étnico más grande de Indonesia es el javanés que constituyen el 41% de la población total. Los javaneses se concentran en la isla de Java, pero millones han emigrado a otras islas en todo el archipiélago. Los sudanés, malayos y madureses son los siguientes grupos más grandes del país. Muchos grupos étnicos, especialmente en Kalimantan y Papua, sólo tienen cientos de miembros. La mayoría de los idiomas locales pertenecen a la familia de lenguas austronesias, aunque un número significativo, particularmente en Papua, habla lenguas papúes.

La división y la clasificación de los grupos étnicos en Indonesia no es rígida y en algunos casos no es clara como resultado de las migraciones, también como resultado de influencias culturales y lingüísticas; por ejemplo, algunos pueden estar de acuerdo en que Banteneses y Cireboneses pertenecen a diferentes grupos étnicos con su propio dialecto diferenciado, sin embargo otros pueden considerarlos como sub-etnias javanesas, como miembros del gran grupo javanés.
El mismo caso también se da con la gente Baduy que comparten muchas similitudes con los Sondaneses que puedan ser considerados como pertenecientes al mismo grupo étnico.
Un ejemplo claro de la etnicidad híbrida es la gente Betawi, el resultado de una mezcla de diferentes etnias nativas con árabes, chinos y gente de India, desde la era de la colonial Batavia (Yakarta).

 

http://www.imagesofasia.com/html/indonesia/indonesian-woman.html

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There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia. 200 million of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry.

The largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up 41% of the total population. The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago. The Sundanese, Malay, and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country. Many ethnic groups, particularly in Kalimantan and Papua, have only hundreds of members. Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family, although a significant number, particularly in Papua, speak Papuan languages.

The division and classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some case are unclear as the result of migrations, also cultural and linguistic influences; for example some may agree that Bantenese and Cirebonese are belongs to different ethnic group with their own distinct dialect, however others might consider them as Javanese sub-ethnicities, the member of larger Javanese people. The same case also with Baduy people that share so many similarities with the Sundanese people that they can be considered as belonging to the same ethnic group. The example of hybrid ethnicity is Betawi people, the result of a mixture of different native ethnicities with Arab, Chinese and Indian since the era of colonial Batavia (Jakarta).

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Indonesians

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Indonesia | Priangan

http://www.imagesofasia.com/html/indonesia/indonesia-people.html

 

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The proportional populations of Native Indonesians according to the (2009 census) is as follows:

Ethnic groups Population (million) Percentage Main Regions
Javanese 86.012 41.7 East Java, Central Java, Lampung
Sundanese 31.765 15.4 West Java, Banten, Lampung
Malay 8.789 4.1 Sumatra eastern coast, West Kalimantan
Madurese 6.807 3.3 Madura island, East Java
Batak 6.188 3.0 North Sumatra
Bugis 6.000 2.9 South Sulawesi, East Kalimantan
Minangkabau 5.569 2.7 West Sumatra, Riau
Betawi 5.157 2.5 Jakarta, Banten, West Java
Banjarese 4.800 2.3 South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan
Bantenese 4.331 2.1 Banten, West Java
Acehnese 4.000 1.9 Aceh
Balinese 3.094 1.5 Bali
Sasak 3.000 1.4 West Nusa Tenggara
Makassarese 2.063 1.0 South Sulawesi
Cirebonese 1.856 0.9 West Java, Central Java

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Pencak_Silat_Betawi_1.jpg

Pencak silat Betawi style performed during Betawi wedding ceremony.Rawasari, Jakarta, Indonesia.

 

 

Several major ethno-linguistic groups of Indonesia.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Indonesia_Ethnic_Groups_Map_English.svg

 

Indigenous peoples in Indonesia

Indonesia has a population of approximately 250 million. The government recognizes 1128 ethnic groups in Indonesia. The Ministry of Social Affairs identifies some indigenous communities as komunitas adat terpencil (geographically-isolated indigenous communities). However, many more peoples self-identify or are considered by others as indigenous. Recent government Acts and Decrees use the term masyarakat adat to refer to indigenous peoples. 

The national indigenous peoples’ organization, Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN), estimates that the number of indigenous peoples in Indonesia falls between 50 and 70 million people.

 

Legislation concerning indigenous peoples

The third amendment to the Indonesian Constitution recognizes indigenous peoples’ rights in Article 18b-2. In more recent legislation, there is an implicit, though conditional, recognition of some rights of peoples referred to as masyarakat adat or masyarakat hukum adat, such as Act No. 5/1960 on Basic Agrarian Regulation, Act No. 39/1999 on Human Rights, MPR Decree No X/2001 on Agrarian Reform. Act No. 27/2007 on Management of Coastal and Small Islands and Act No. 32/2010 on Environment clearly use the term Masyarakat Adat and use the working definition of AMAN. The Constitutional Court in May 2013 affirmed the Constitutional Rights of Indigenous Peoples to their land and territories including their collective rights over customary forest. 

 

The UNDRIP adopted but not implemented

While Indonesia is a signatory to the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), government officials argue that the concept of indigenous peoples is not applicable as almost all Indonesians (with the exception of the ethnic Chinese) are indigenous and thus entitled to the same rights. Consequently, the government has rejected calls for specific needs by groups identifying themselves as indigenous. 

 

Yearly update

Read the 2012 yearbook article on indigenous peoples in Indonesia to learn about major developments and events during 2011 (internal link)

Enjoy some images from Indonesia below (IWGIA Flickr archive)

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