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 Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius

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Faustina Minor Louvre Ma1144.jpg

Faustina the Younger (130–175 AD). Marble, ca. 161 AD. From the area of Tivoli.

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Cuando Antonino Pío, el cuarto de los " Cinco Buenos Emperadores" murió en 161 dC, Marcus Aurelius y Lucius Verus ascendieron al trono y se convirtieron en co-gobernantes. A Faustina la Menor se le dio el título de Augusta y se convirtió en emperatriz.

Por desgracia, no mucho ha sobrevivido de las fuentes romanas respecto a la vida de Faustina, pero lo disponible no da buenas referencias de ella. Cassius Dio y la Historia Augusta acusan a Faustina de ordenar muertes por envenenamiento y ejecuciones; también ha sido acusada de instigar la revuelta de Avidius Cassius contra su marido.

La Historia Augusta menciona adulterio con marineros, gladiadores, y hombres de rango; sin embargo, Faustina y Marco Aurelio parecen haber estado muy estrechamente vinculados emocionalmente. Para algunos investigadores de la historia, ella se lanzó a los brazos de ABIDIO CASIO cuando su marido agonizaba ... pero la repentina recuperación del emperador cayó por sorpresa, Faustina era la manzana de la discordia entre Marco Aurelio y su otrora gran amigo y leal general Avidius Cassius ...

"Después de un sueño de un imperio que duró tres meses y seis días", Avidio Casio fue asesinado por un centurión;. [8] su cabeza fue enviada a Marco Aurelio, que se negó a verlo y ordenó enterrado [6] Egipto reconoció de nuevo como emperador a Marcus Aurelius el 28 de julio de 175 dC. [8]

Como era de esperar, los acontecimientos de la rebelión de Cassius pasaron factura a Faustina, que murió en el invierno de 175, después de "un accidente", en el campamento militar en Halala (una ciudad en las montañas Taurus en Capadocia).

 

Aurelio dió a Faustina el título de Mater Castrorum o Madre del Campo y así doro la píldora de su súbita e inesperada muerte.

Quedó registrado en algunas historiografías que ella trató de hacer que su casa fuera un campamento del ejército imperial. Entre 170 a 175, estaba en el frente del norte, y en 175 acompañó a su marido, al emperador, al frente del este, donde la alcanzó el fatal destino.

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IMPERIO ROMANO EN 125 dC

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Aunque las fuentes romanas dan una visión generalmente negativa de su carácter, gozó de alta estima entre los soldados y su propio marido le confirió honores divinos después de su muerte

Faustina la Menor se casó con el futuro emperador Marco Aurelio.

Adriano inicialmente la comprometió con Lucio Vero, pero prefirió a su primo Marco Aurelio; se casaron en 145 dC. Se convirtió en Augusta al año siguiente.

Se decía que tenía un personalidad alegre, aunque la tardía y poco veraz Historia Augusta arremete contra ella, y cuenta historias de adulterios con marineros y gladiadores, sugiriendo que parió a Cómodo a consecuencia de una aventura con un gladiador; así explicaban la pasión de Cómodo por el combate en el circo. También se decía que Faustina se había lavado con la sangre de un gladiador muerto antes de yacer con Marco Aurelio.

 

Revuelta y muerte de Avidius Cassius

El 175 dC, el general Avidius Cassius, general del emperador Marco Aurelio fue proclamado emperador romano después de la noticia errónea de la muerte del emperador; [4] [5] las fuentes indican que Avidio Casio se sintió alentado por Faustina, que preocupada por problemas de salud de su marido, creyendolo al borde de la muerte, y sintiendo la necesidad de que Avidio Casio actuara como su protector en el dificil trance de la viudez, ya que su hijo Cómodo, de 13 años, era todavía muy joven. [4] [6] Ella también quería a alguien que actúe como contrapeso a las pretensiones de Tiberio Claudio Pompeyano, que estaba en una posición fuerte para tomar el cargo de Princeps en el caso de la muerte de Marcus Aurelius. [7] La ​​evidencia, incluyendo los propios escritos de Marcus, "Meditaciones", apoyan la idea de que Marcus estaba de hecho muy enfermo [7], pero para cuando se recuperó, Cassius ya estaba completamente aclamado por las legiones egipcias del II Traiana Fortis y del XXII Deiotariana.


"Después de un sueño de un imperio que duró tres meses y seis días", Avidio Casio fue asesinado por un centurión;. [8] su cabeza fue enviada a Marco Aurelio, que se negó a verlo y ordenó enterrado [6] Egipto reconoció de nuevo como emperador a Marcus Aurelius el 28 de julio de 175 dC. [8]

Como era de esperar, los acontecimientos de la rebelión de Cassius pasaron factura a Faustina, que murió en el invierno de 175, después de "un accidente", en el campamento militar en Halala (una ciudad en las montañas Taurus en Capadocia).


Marco Aurelio pareció muy entristecido por perder su esposa y la enterró en el Mausoleo de Adriano en Roma. Ella fue deificada: su estatua fue colocada en el templo de Venus en Roma y un templo fue dedicado. El nombre de Halala fue cambiado a Faustinopolis y Aurelio abrió escuelas de caridad para las niñas huérfanas llaman puellae Faustinianae o 'Chicas de Faustina. [9] Los baños de Faustina en Mileto se nombraron así en su honorhttp://www.jasperburns.com/jpgs2/FaustinaTwo.jpg

Faustina acompañó al emperador Marco Aurelio, su marido, en la campaña del norte del Imperio de los años 170-174 y después en la campaña del este, donde murió (175).

Marco Aurelio la consagró y fundó un establecimiento de caridad en su honor: la segunda Puellae Faustinianae (la primera la fundó su padre Antonino Pío en memoria de Faustina la Mayor).

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Roman Emperor-Avidius Cassius(175AD) Warriors x EliteGuard's channel Subido el 15/10/2011 Emperor Avidius Cassius Of The Roman Empire In 175 he was proclaimed Roman Emperor after the erroneous news of the death of Marcus Aurelius; the sources also indicate he was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's ill health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus was still young (13). The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill, but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deitoriana. At first, according to Cassius Dio, Marcus, who was on campaign against tribes in the north, tried to keep the rebellion a secret from his soldiers, but after the news had spread among them, he addressed them. In this speech that Dio attributes to Marcus, he laments the disloyalty of "a dearest friend", while at the same time expressing his hope that Cassius would not be killed or commit suicide, so that he could show mercy. The Senate declared Cassius a public enemy. It is known that Cassius was recognized as emperor by May 3, since a document of that date is recorded as being in the first year of Cassius's reign. The beginning of his rebellion have been in April 175. Although he seized control of some of the most vital parts of the Roman east — Egypt being an important source of grain for the city of Rome — Cassius failed to find widespread support for his rebellion. The governor of Cappadocia, Martius Verus, remained loyal to Marcus Aurelius. Clearly Marcus was in a stronger position, with many more legions available to him than were available to Cassius. "After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion; his head was sent to Marcus, who refused to see it and ordered it buried. The events of his life are known from Cassius Dio's Roman History, and the Historia Augusta. Through his maternal great-great grandmother Junia Lepida (a great grandmother of Cassia Alexandria), Avidius Cassius was a direct descendant (sixth great-grandson) of the first Roman emperor Augustus Caesar, and thus the Julian bloodline would carry on through Avidius' children. Educational Purposes Only

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When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina was given the title of Augusta and became Empress.

Unfortunately, not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the Augustan History accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; she has also been accused of instigating the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. The Augustan History mentions adultery with sailors, gladiators, and men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been very close and mutually devoted.

Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of Mater Castrorum or Mother of the Camp. She attempted to make her home out of an army camp. Between 170–175, she was in the north, and in 175, she accompanied Aurelius to the east.

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Revolt of Avidius Cassius and death

That same year, 175, Aurelius's general Avidius Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of Marcus's death;[4][5] the sources indicate Cassius was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's failing health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus, aged 13, was still young.[4][6] She also wanted someone who would act as a counter-weight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, who was in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death.[7] The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill,[7] but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deiotariana.

"After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion;[8] his head was sent to Marcus Aurelius, who refused to see it and ordered it buried.[6] Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by 28 July 175.[8]

As would be expected, the events of Cassius' rebellion took their toll on Faustina, who died in the winter of 175, after an accident, at the military camp in Halala (a city in the Taurus Mountains in Cappadocia).

Aurelius grieved much for his wife and buried her in the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. She was deified: her statue was placed in the Temple of Venus in Rome and a temple was dedicated to her in her honor. Halala’s name was changed to Faustinopolis and Aurelius opened charity schools for orphan girls called Puellae Faustinianae or 'Girls of Faustina'.[9] The Baths of Faustina in Miletus are named after her.

 

Faustina the Younger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faustina_the_Younger

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Avidius Cassius Usurper

In 175 Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of the death of Marcus Aurelius;[19][20] the sources also indicate he was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's ill health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus, aged 13, was still young.[19][21] She also wanted someone who would act as a counter-weight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, who was in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death.[22] The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill,[22] but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legion of II Traiana Fortis.

At first, according to Cassius Dio, Marcus, who was on campaign against tribes in the north, tried to keep the rebellion a secret from his soldiers,[23] but after the news had spread among them, he addressed them. In this speech that Dio attributes to Marcus, he laments the disloyalty of "a dearest friend", while at the same time expressing his hope that Cassius would not be killed or commit suicide, so that he could show mercy.[21] In the meantime, the Senate declared Cassius a public enemy.[22][20]

At the start of his rebellion, he was in a reasonable position. In his native Syria, and more broadly throughout the eastern provinces he had a good number of followers. They were inspired by a combination of his royal descent and his victories in the Parthian wars, as well as his suppression of the revolt of the Bucoli.[22] He also had ties through marriage to a large group of Lycian nobles. In terms of military resources, he had around seven legions – his three Syrian legions, plus two in Palestine, one in Arabia and one in Egypt, with the Prefect, Calvisius Statianus, joining his revolt.[12] It was in Egypt that Cassius made his base of operations, and it is known that Cassius was recognized as Emperor there by May 3, since a document of that date is recorded as being in the first year of Cassius's reign.[12] However, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that the beginning of his rebellion may well have been in April 175, or possibly even March.[12]

Although he seized control of some of the most vital parts of the Roman East — Egypt being an important source of grain for the city of Rome — Cassius failed to find widespread support for his rebellion.[12] The governor of Cappadocia, Martius Verus, remained loyal to Marcus Aurelius, while Herodes Atticus was reported to have sent him a letter, containing one Greek word: emanes (‘you are mad’).[23] Rome was panicked by the news, forcing the Emperor to send Gaius Vettius Sabinianus Julius Hospes, the governor of Pannonia Inferior with a force to secure the city.[23] Yet it was soon clear that Marcus Aurelius was in a stronger position, with many more legions available to him than were available to Cassius.[24] "After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion;[25] his head was sent to Marcus Aurelius, who refused to see it and ordered it buried.[21] Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by July 28, 175.[25]

 

Avidius Cassius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avidius_Cassius

 

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