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Cytosolic and mitochondrial production and functions of H2S.
Cytosolic and mitochondrial production and functions of H2S.

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Aunque los huevos podridos son repulsivos, el sulfuro de hidrógeno que les hace oler horrible puede proporcionar un montón de beneficios para la salud, si se administra en pequeñas dosis.
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Figure 2The pathogenic roles of H2S at different stages of diabetes development.

The pathogenic roles of H2S at different stages of diabetes development.

Elevated endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes have crucial roles in the onset of diabetes. At late stages of the disease, endogenous H2S levels are lower in the affected organs and tissues, such…

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Huevos podridos puede prevenir daño mitocondrial; sulfuro de hidrógeno ayuda a tratar enfermedades como accidente cerebrovascular, ataques cardíacos y demencia



Aunque los huevos podridos son repulsivos, el sulfuro de hidrógeno que les hace oler horrible puede proporcionar un montón de beneficios para la salud, si se administra en pequeñas dosis.

12 de julio 2014

¿Quién sabía que los huevos podridos podrían ser tan útiles médicamente? Los científicos han identificado un cierto compuesto que se produce cuando los huevos estàn malogrados. Se llama sulfuro de hidrógeno, y se ha demostrado que es eficaz en la reversión del daño mitocondrial y el tratamiento de enfermedades como el derrame cerebral y la demencia.

El estudio, de la Universidad de Exeter, encontrò que un nuevo compuesto conocido como AP39, podría viajar a ciertas partes de la célula, tales como las mitocondrias, que se conoce como las "centrales de energìa" de la célula, cuando se inserta en el cuerpo. Las mitocondrias gestionan el crecimiento, el ciclo y la muerte celular, y también son fuente de energía química. Debido a que desempeñan un papel en muchas dolencias, como la enfermedad cardiovascular, los científicos creen que la prevención de daño mitocondrial podría tener un efecto terapéutico en ciertas condiciones mèdicas tales como derrames cerebrales, insuficiencia cardíaca, artritis, diabetes, demencia, e incluso el envejecimiento.

 

El compuesto AP39 es capaz de entregar pequeñas cantidades de sulfuro de hidrógeno - que se encuentra tanto en los huevos podridos como en las flatulencias humanas - a las células para comenzar su trabajo. "A pesar de que el sulfuro de hidrógeno de los huevos podridos y flatulencias nos da asco, podría de hecho ser un héroe de la salud con implicaciones importantes para futuras terapias para una variedad de enfermedades," dijo el Dr. Mark Wood, autor del estudio, en un comunicado de prensa. Es importante señalar, sin embargo, que el sulfuro de hidrógeno en grandes dosis puede ser mortal.

Los científicos han estudiado los efectos del sulfuro de hidrógeno en el pasado, ya habìan señalando que podría desempeñar un papel en la lucha contra el envejecimiento. Un estudio, publicado en 2013, encontró que tiene efectos significativos sobre los sistemas cardiovascular y nervioso. Los científicos observaron que el sulfuro de hidrógeno "puede convertirse en el próximo potente agente para prevenir y mejorar los síntomas de envejecimiento y las enfermedades asociadas a la edad."

Con este estudio dado a conocer en julio de 2014, en el que los investigadores monitorean el AP39 que se dirigen a la mitocondria, la sustancia química ha demostrado que induce la supervivencia en un 80% de las mitocondrias que enfrentan condiciones destructivas. "Cuando las células se estresan por la enfermedad, producen enzimas para generar pequeñas cantidades de sulfuro de hidrógeno", dijo el profesor Matt Whiteman, de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Exeter, en el comunicado. "Esto mantiene las mitocondrias trabajando como en piloto automàtico y permite que las células vivan. Si esto no ocurre, las células mueren y pierden la capacidad de regular la supervivencia y controlar la inflamación. Hemos explotado este proceso natural haciendo que un compuesto, llamado AP39, entregue lentamente cantidades muy pequeñas de este gas, de sulfuro de hidrógeno, específicamente a las mitocondrias. Nuestros resultados indican que si las células estresadas son tratados con AP39, las mitocondrias están protegidas y las células se mantienen con vida. Los investigadores esperan probar sus experimentos en humanos.

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Figure 3Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective targets of H2S.

Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective targets of H2S.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is thought to act through several pathways, some of which are illustrated above, to reduce inflammation and protect tissues from injury (such as ulceration in the gastrointestinal tract). H2S can suppress leukocyt…



Rotten Eggs May Prevent Mitochondrial Damage; Hydrogen Sulfide Helps Treat Diseases Like Stroke, Heart Attacks, And Dementia


Though rotten eggs are repulsive, the hydrogen sulfide that makes them smell awful can provide plenty of health benefits, if administered in small doses.

Jul 12, 2014 http://www.medicaldaily.com/rotten-eggs-may-prevent-mitochondrial-damage-hydrogen-sulfide-helps-treat-diseases-stroke-heart

Who knew that rotten eggs could be so useful medically? Scientists have identified a certain compound that is produced when eggs go bad. It’s called hydrogen sulfide, and has been proven to be effective in reversing mitochondrial damage and treating diseases like stroke and dementia.

The study, out of the University of Exeter, found that a new compound known as AP39, could target certain parts of the cell such as the mitochondria, which is known as the “powerhouse” of the cell, when inserted into the body. Mitochondria manage cell growth, cycle, and death, and are also a source of chemical energy. Because it plays a role in a lot of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, scientists believe that preventing mitochondrial damage could have a therapeutic effect on certain conditions like stroke, heart failure, arthritis, diabetes, dementia, and even aging.

AP39 is able to deliver very small amounts of hydrogen sulfide — which is found both in rotten eggs and human farts — to cells to begin its work. “Although hydrogen sulfide is well known as a pungent, foul-smelling gas in rotten eggs and flatulence, it is naturally produced in the body and could in fact be a healthcare hero with significant implications for future therapies for a variety of diseases,” study author Dr. Mark Wood said in a press release. It’s important to note, however, that hydrogen sulfide in large doses can be deadly.

Scientists have studied the effects of hydrogen sulfide in the past, previously noting that it could play a role in fighting aging. One study, published in 2013, found that the chemical had significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems in the body. Scientists noted that hydrogen sulfide “may become the next potent agent for preventing and ameliorating the symptoms of aging and age-associated diseases.”


With the newest study, in which researchers are targeting mitochondria through AP39, the chemical has been shown to induce survival in 80 percent of mitochondria that are under destructive conditions. “When cells become stressed by disease, they draw in enzymes to generate minute quantities of hydrogen sulfide,” said Professor Matt Whiteman of the University of Exeter Medical School, in the release. “This keeps the mitochondria ticking over and allows cells to live. If this doesn’t happen, the cells die and lose the ability to regulate survival and control inflammation. We have exploited this natural process by making a compound, called AP39, which slowly delivers very small amounts of this gas specifically to the mitochondria. Our results indicate that if stressed cells are treated with AP39, mitochondria are protected and cells stay alive.” The researchers hope to move their experiments forward to be tested in humans next.

 mitochondrion diagram
mitochondrion diagram

Exposure to hydrogen sulfide could prevent mitochondria damage

Hydrogen sulfide-based therapeutics: exploiting a unique ...

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Silent, not deadly; how farts cure diseases | Dean Burnett ...

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El sulfuro de hidrógeno se produce en pequeñas cantidades en algunas células del cuerpo de los mamíferos y tiene un número de funciones de señalización biológica. (Sólo otros dos gases actualmente conocidos se comportan parecido: el óxido nítrico (NO) y de monóxido de carbono (CO).)

El sulfuro de hidrógeno actùa como un factor relajante derivado del endotelio (EDRF endothelium-derived relaxing factor ) y como factor de hiperpolarización derivado del endotelio (EDHF endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor).

El sulfuro de hidrógeno actúa como un relajante del músculo liso y como vasodilatador y también está activo en el cerebro, donde aumenta la respuesta del receptor NMDA (del receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato o receptor ionotrópico de glutamato), y facilita la potenciación a largo plazo, que está implicada en la formación de la memoria.

Finalmente, el gas sulfuro de hidrógeno se convierte en sulfito en la mitocondria por acciòn de la enzima tiosulfato reductasa y el sulfito es ulteriormente oxidado a tiosulfato y sulfato por acciòn de la sulfito oxidasa. Los sulfatos se excretan en la orina.

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Hydrogen sulfide: Function in the body

Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the mammalian body and has a number of biological signaling functions. (Only two other such gases are currently known: nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO).)

The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Hydrogen sulfide acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and as anendothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF).[44] It acts as a relaxant of smooth muscle and as a vasodilator[45] and is also active in the brain, where it increases the response of the NMDA receptor and facilitates long term potentiation,[46]which is involved in the formation of memory.

Eventually the gas is converted to sulfite in the mitochondria by thiosulfate reductase, and the sulfite is further oxidized tothiosulfate and sulfate by sulfite oxidase. The sulfates are excreted in the urine.[47]

Due to its effects similar to nitric oxide (without its potential to form peroxides by interacting with superoxide), hydrogen sulfide is now recognized as potentially protecting against cardiovascular disease.[45] The cardioprotective role effect ofgarlic is caused by catabolism of the polysulfide group in allicin to H
2S, a reaction that could depend on reduction mediated by glutathione.[48]

Though both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide have been shown to relax blood vessels, their mechanisms of action are different: while NO activates the enzyme guanylyl cyclase, H
2S activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in smooth muscle cells. Researchers are not clear how the vessel-relaxing responsibilities are shared between nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. However, there exists some evidence to suggest that nitric oxide does most of the vessel-relaxing work in large vessels and hydrogen sulfide is responsible for similar action in smaller blood vessels.[49]

Recent findings suggest strong cellular crosstalk of NO and H
2S,[50] demonstrating that the vasodilatatory effects of these two gases are mutually dependent. Additionally, H
2S reacts with intracellular S-nitrosothiols to form the smallest S-nitrosothiol (HSNO), and a role of hydrogen sulfide in controlling the intracellular S-nitrosothiol pool has been suggested.[51]

Like nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide is involved in the relaxation of smooth muscle that causes erection of the penis, presenting possible new therapy opportunities for erectile dysfunction.[52][53]

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INVOLVEMENT IN DISEASES

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Hydrogen sulfide deficiency after heart attack

A hydrogen sulfide (H2S) deficiency can be detrimental to the vascular function after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).[54]AMIs can lead to cardiac dysfunction through two distinct changes; increased oxidative stress via free radical accumulation and decreased NO bioavailability.[55] Free radical accumulation occurs due to increased electron transport uncoupling at the active site of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme involved in converting L-arginine to NO.[54][55] During an AMI, oxidative degradation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor in NO production, limits BH4 availability and limits NO productionby eNOS.[55] Instead, eNOS reacts with oxygen, another cosubstrates involved in NO production. The products of eNOS are reduced to superoxides, increasing free radical production and oxidative stress within the cells.[54] A H2S deficiency impairs eNOS activity by limiting Akt activation and inhibiting Akt phosphorylation of the eNOSS1177 activation site.[54][56] Instead, Akt activity is increased to phosphorylate the eNOST495 inhibition site, downregulating eNOS production of NO.[54][56]

H2S therapy uses a H2S donor, such as diallyl trisulfide (DATS), to increase the supply of H2S to an AMI patient. H2S donors reduce myocardial injury and reperfusion complications.[54] Increased H2S levels within the body will react with oxygen to produce sulfane sulfur, a storage intermediate for H2S.[54] H2S pools in the body attracts oxygen to react with excess H2S and eNOS to increase NO production.[54] With increased use of oxygen to produce more NO, less oxygen is available to react with eNOS to produce superoxides during an AMI, ultimately lowering the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).[54] Furthermore, decreased accumulation of ROS lowers oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells, decreasing oxidative degeneration of BH4.[55] Increased BH4 cofactor contributes to increased production of NO within the body.[55]Higher concentrations of H2S directly increase eNOS activity through Akt activation to increase phosphorylation of the eNOSS1177 activation site, and decrease phosphorylation of the eNOST495 inhibition site.[54][56] This phosphorylation process upregulates eNOS activity, catalyzing more conversion of L-arginine to NO.[54][56] Increased NO production enables soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activity, leading to an increased conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to 3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP).[57] In H2S therapy immediately following an AMI, increased cGMP triggers an increase in protein kinase G (PKG) activity.[58] PKG reduces intracellular Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle to increase smooth muscle relaxation and promote blood flow.[58] PKG also limits smooth muscle cell proliferation, reducing intima thickening following AMI injury, ultimately decreasing myocardial infarct size.[54][57]

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Hydrogen sulfide in other diseases

In Alzheimer's disease the brain's hydrogen sulfide concentration is severely decreased.[59] In a certain rat model ofParkinson's disease, the brain's hydrogen sulfide concentration was found to be reduced, and administering hydrogen sulfide alleviated the condition.[60] In trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) the body produces an excess of hydrogen sulfide.[47]Hydrogen sulfide is also involved in the disease process of type 1 diabetes. The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes produce an excess of the gas, leading to the death of these cells and to a reduced production of insulin by those that remain.[49]

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide

 

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