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30 septiembre 2015 3 30 /09 /septiembre /2015 19:51
Engine Volkswagen said the software discrepancy has occurred on Type EA 189 engines used in around 11 million vehicles. In Charts: The Volkswagen Emission Scandal - WSJ.com graphics.wsj.com
Engine Volkswagen said the software discrepancy has occurred on Type EA 189 engines used in around 11 million vehicles. In Charts: The Volkswagen Emission Scandal - WSJ.com graphics.wsj.com

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Violaciónes de emisiones de Volkswagen

El 18 de septiembre 2015, la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos (EPA Environmental Protection Agency) emitió un "Aviso de Violación" al fabricante de automóviles alemán Volkswagen Group, diciendo que la EPA había determinado que la Volkswagen había fabricado e instalado en sus vehículos dispositivos para alterar el sistemas de control de emisiones, violando así la normativa.

La violación de los controles de emisiones en los motores diesel de los vehículos equipados con inyección directa turbo (TDI turbocharged direct injection) ocurre únicamente durante las pruebas de emisiones de laboratorio. Esto hace que la produccciòn y mediciòn de emisiones, durante la prueba sea mucho más baja que la que se da durante la conducción real, de los vehículos. De manera que los vehículos con dispositivos para alterar el sistemas de control de emisiones, emiten hasta 35 veces el límite màximo legalmente permitido de óxidos de nitrógeno, burlando la normatividad de control de contaminaciòn.

El software de programación para trucar las emisiones de gases contaminantes, se instaló en los modelos Volkswagen y Audi entre los años 2009 y 2015; en un estimado de once millones de automóviles en todo el mundo, incluyendo 500.000 en los Estados Unidos.

Estos resultados llevaron a un estudio sobre las discrepancias regionales de emisiones, encargado en 2014 al Dr. Vicente Franco, ingeniero industrial español e investigador en jefe del Consejo Internacional de Transporte Limpio (ICCT International Council on Clean Transportation), que buscaba datos de tres fuentes diferentes en 15 vehículos. Entre los grupos de investigación dirigidos por Vicente Franco estaba un grupo de cinco científicos de la Universidad de Virginia Occidental, que detectó un alto nivel de emisiones durante las pruebas de carretera en pista en tres coches diesel.
ICCT, también comprò datos de otras dos fuentes.
Ellos presentaron sus conclusiones a la Junta de Recursos del Aire de California (Air Resources Board) y a la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos en mayo de 2014.

La Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos clasificò este software de programación como un dispositivo de desactivación, como un dispositivo para trucar emisiones, prohibido por la Ley de Aire Limpio.

El escàndalo ha impactado el negocio global de Volkswagen. La empresa fue sometida a procedimientos legales, investigaciones regulatorias y demandas colectivas en varios países, y los precios de las acciones de Volkswagen experimentaron una importante caida.
El 23 de septiembre de 2015, el CEO del Grupo Volkswagen, Martin Winterkorn, renunció debido al escándalo; despues renunció el jefe de desarrollo de la marca, Heinz-Jakob Neusser; despues renunció el jefe de investigación y desarrollo de Audi, Ulrich Hackenberg, y tambien renunció el jefe de investigación y desarrollo de Porsche, Wolfgang Hatz. Volkswagen anunció planes para invertir US $ 7,300 millones en la rectificación de los problemas de emisiones, y tenía previsto corregir las altas emisiones de contaminantes en los vehículos afectados. como parte de una campaña de recuperación.

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TRADUCCIÒN: MALCOLM ALLISON H 2015

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LEER MÀS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_emissions_violations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_emissions_violations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_emissions_violations

 

Volkswagen emissions violations

On 18 September 2015 the United States Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) issued a "Notice of Violation" to German automaker Volkswagen Group, saying that the EPA had determined that the company had manufactured and installed in their vehicles devices to defeat elements of the vehicles' emission control systems, thereby violating regulations.[5] Violating vehicles equipped with turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engines only enabled theiremissions controls during laboratory emissions testing.[6][7] This caused emissions produced, and measured, during testing to be much lower than those produced during real-world driving—where the affected vehicles emitted up to 35 times the legal limit of nitrogen oxides (NOx).[8][9] The offending programming was included in Volkswagen and Audi models between model years 2009 and 2015; it was included on an estimated eleven million cars worldwide, including 500,000 in the United States.[10]

These findings stemmed from a study on regional emissions discrepancies commissioned in 2014 by Dr. Vicente Franco, a Spanish industrial engineer[11][12] and chief researcher for the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), which sought data from three different sources on 15 vehicles. Among the research groups led by Vicente Franco was a group of five scientists at West Virginia University, who detected a high level of emissions during live road tests on three diesel cars.[13] ICCT also purchased data from two other sources.[14] They provided their findings to the California Air Resources Board and the EPA in May 2014.[5] The EPA classified this programming as a defeat device, prohibited by the Clean Air Act.[5]

The controversy has had an impact on Volkswagen's overall business. The company was subjected to legal proceedings, regulatory investigations, andclass action lawsuits in multiple countries,[15] and Volkswagen's stock prices experienced a major decrease in value. On 23 September 2015, Volkswagen Group CEO Martin Winterkorn resigned in response to the scandal, followed by the suspension of head of brand development Heinz-Jakob Neusser, Audi research and development head Ulrich Hackenberg, and Porsche research and development head Wolfgang Hatz. Volkswagen announced plans to spend US$7.3 billion on rectifying the emissions issues, and planned to refit the affected vehicles as part of a recall campaign.

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Engine Volkswagen said the software discrepancy has occurred on Type EA 189 engines used in around 11 million vehicles. Diesel engines use a complex mix of sensors and filtration methods to track and limit emission levels.

Controls Information gathered by sensors measuring steering and accelerator pedal inputs are suspected to have been used to determine when the cars are being tested for emissions, triggering more thorough treatment of exhaust.

Under the car Modern diesel cars use a mix of devices to meet pollution limits, but they can hamper fuel consumption and other performance, automotive engineers say. Nitrogen oxides in some circumstances could be filtered more heavily based on car configuration.

Exhaust Regulators and the Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines and Emissions at West Virginia University detected variations in emissions on Volkswagen cars when they were being operated on the road to those emitted when being tested.

 

 

 

 

 

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Legal and financial repercussions
  • Canada: Environment Canada has announced that it has initiated proceedings to evaluate if "defeat devices" were installed in Volkswagen vehicles to bypass emission control tests in Canada.[66]
  • European Union: Government regulatory agencies and investigators have initiated proceedings in France, Italy, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Romania. Several countries have called for a Europe-wide investigation.[67][68][69]
  • Germany: German prosecutors have launched an investigation against former Volkswagen chief executive Martin Winterkorn. Winterkorn had resigned over the scandal, saying he had no knowledge of the manipulation of emissions results.[70]
  • India: Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) has been instructed by the Indian government to investigate if vehicles from Volkswagen had circumvented Indian laws and regulations on vehicle emission testing. Ambuj Sharma, additional secretary at the Ministry of Heavy Industry, said: "ARAI has been asked to submit its report within a week."[71][72] The Indian Foundation of Transport, Research and Training (IFTRT) has demanded a probe into Volkswagen's Confirmation of Production process for vehicles sold in India.[73]
  • Netherlands: Netherlands has spent billions of Euros on subsidies in energy-efficient cars in the recent years. Jesse Klaver from the political party GroenLinks responded that the Netherlands must claim back money from the car manufacturers if it emerges that they have also committed fraud in the Netherlands.[74]
  • South Africa: The departments of Environmental Affairs and Transport as well as the National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications say they need to determine whether local cars have been affected by the rigging of US vehicle emissions tests.
  • South Korea: Authorities in South Korea announced pollution control investigations into cars manufactured by Volkswagen and other European car-manufacturers. Park Pan-kyu, a deputy director at South Korea's environment ministry said: "If South Korean authorities find problems in the VW diesel cars, the probe could be expanded to all German diesel cars".[75]
  • Sweden: Sweden's chief prosecutor is considering starting a preliminary investigation into Volkswagen's emissions violations.[76]
  • Switzerland: Switzerland has banned sales of Volkswagen diesel cars, marking the most severe step taken so far by a government in reaction to the emissions crisis.[77]
  • United Kingdom: The Department of Transport announced on 24 September that it would begin re-testing cars from a variety of manufacturers to ensure the use of "defeat devices" is not industry wide.[78]
  • United States: The EPA announced that should the allegations be proven, Volkswagen Group could face fines of up toUS$37,500 per vehicle (approximately US$18 billion in total). VW suspended sales of TDI-equipped cars in the US on 20 September 2015.[79] In addition to possible civil fines, media reports state that the United States Department of JusticeEnvironment and Natural Resources Division is conducting a criminal probe of Volkswagen AG's conduct.[80][81] TheUnited States House Energy Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations has announced that it would hold a hearing into the Volkswagen scandal. New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman said that his investigation was already underway and warned: "No company should be allowed to evade our environmental laws or promise consumers a fake bill of goods".[82]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_emissions_violations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_emissions_violations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_emissions_violations

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