Overblog Seguir este blog
Edit post Administration Create my blog
26 julio 2012 4 26 /07 /julio /2012 18:15

aishalton

 

Groundbreaking archaeological discoveries being made in Guyana

.

 

Figure 5

Geometric petroglyphs near Kurukupari.

 

Proyecto Arqueológico Berbice en GUYANA hace más descubrimientos

 

 

Reportan descubrimientos arqueológicos en Guyana

 

 

Georgetown, 21 dic. (PL) Guyana está a la espera de resultados de pruebas científicas con carbono que pudieran confirmar la existencia de asentamientos humanos prehistóricos en su territorio de unos cinco mil años de antigüedad.

 

La revelación fue hecha a la Agencia de Información del Gobierno de Guyana (GINA) por el Ministro de Cultura, Juventud y Deportes, Frank Anthony.

 

Anthony refirió el hallazgo de más de 20 montículos de conchas que deben tener entre seis mil 500 y siete mil años de antigüedad, y precisó que todos estos descubrimientos fueron hechos en la región del río Berbice.

 

Este trabajo de investigación científica, probablemente será permanente durante los próximos cinco a 10 años o incluso más, y se averigua a qué nueva civilización pueden corresponder los hallazgos humanos, refirió.

 

Confirmó que el Proyecto Arqueológico Berbice ha encontrado también restos de un perezoso gigante megaterio y tumbas antiguas y diversas manifestaciones de arte rupestre como petroglifos en un área denominada Wyva Creek Shell, donde se mezclan conchas de moluscos comestibles con evidencia de ocupación humana.

 

Recordó que objetos de cerámica descubiertos anteriormente en Kabakaburi en el Pomarón están entre los artefactos más viejos jamás encontrados en las Américas.

 

Aseguró que los descubrimientos realizados han intensificado el interés arqueológico y paleontológico por Guyana y ello amplía la actividad de organismos de investigación prehistórica y viene bien al objetivo de ampliar el entorno eco-turismo de este país suramericano y caribeño.

 

El ministro Anthony recordó que objetos de cerámica descubiertos anteriormente en Kabakaburi en el Pomarón están entre los artefactos más viejos jamás encontrados en las Américas. Los descubrimientos realizados han intensificado el interés arqueológico y paleontológico por Guyana y ello amplía la actividad de organismos de investigación prehistórica y viene bien al objetivo de ampliar el entorno eco-turismo de este país suramericano y caribeño.

.

 

Kabakaburi 

 

Kabakaburi es una aldea en la región de Pomeroon-Supenaam de Guyana sobre el río Pomarón, a 56 kilómetros de su desembocadura. Los habitantes son mayorítariamente arawak y caribes. Muchos de ellos trabajan en la tala de la zona y la minería.

El nombre de la aldea es Arawak ( significa "el lugar de los arbustos que pican") por la presencia de la planta de Arum (Dieffenbachia paludicola) con jugo irritante. Los arawak llaman a esta planta "jotoro", y llaman al lugar donde crece "Kabo Kabura" Con el tiempo, esto se convirtió en Kabakaburi.

Kabakaburi es un sitio importante por su patrimonio histórico y arqueológico, que presenta montículos de conchas y cerámicas antiguas

 

.

 

Kabakaburi 

 

Kabakaburi is a village in the Pomeroon-Supenaam Region of Guyana on the Pomeroon River, 56 km (35 mi) from its mouth. The villagers are mostly Arawak and Carib Amerindians. Many of them work in the area's logging and mining industries.

The name of the village is Arawak for "the place with the itching bush." The "bush" referred to is a wild arum (Dieffenbachia paludicola) having irritating juice. The Arawak named this plant "jotoro", and named the place where it grew "kabo kabura" Over time, this became Kabakaburi.

Kabakaburi is an important historical and archeological heritage site, containing both shell mounds and ancient ceramics

 

 

      

 

http://guyanavillages.blogspot.com/2010/06/aishalton.html

Reportan descubrimientos arqueológicos en Guyana - La Guayana ...

www.laguayanaesequiba.org › Guyana

 

.

Frank Anthony, de la Agencia de Información del Gobierno de Guyana (GINA) también dijo que expertos locales y arqueólogos del museo estadounidense Walter Roth descubrieron en Shell Mound, restos de una ballena, un delfín y un pez gigante de una especie extremadamente rara, que podrían tener una antigüedad de unos 10 mil años.

 

Eso pudiera confirmar que en lugares donde hoy existe un denso bosque ayer pudo haber praderas, comentó y añadió que al tratar de explicar como esas especies llegaron tierra adentro, los arqueólogos no descartan la influencia del río o las mareas durante inundaciones.

.

 

http://www.centrelink.org/Plew.html

 

Una nota sobre un fechado de radiocarbono para la cultura de la fase Rupununi, Guyana del Sur

 

Por Mark G. Plew

Universidad Estatal de Boise

 

Introducción

Uno de los misterios no resueltos de la arqueología de las sabanas del interior de Guyana es la edad de la cultura llamada cultura de la fase Rupununi. Esta cultura se asocia con pueblos hortícolas que hicieron una cerámica singular. Sobre la base de artefactos cerámicos y de otro tipo,  la convención desde hace mucho tiempo es que la fase está asociada con las poblaciones históricas Makushi y Wapishana del interior de Guyana. La fecha de radiocarbono que consignamos es el primera fechado absoluto o cronométrico de la fase de Runpununi. La determinacion por radiocarbono confirma la edad histórica de la fase.

 

La fase de Rupununi del Sur de Guayana

Durante el trabajo de campo en Guyana en la década de 1950, Evans y Meggers (1960) exploraron la arqueología de las sabanas de Rupununi que se extienden desde las montañas al sur Pakaraima a la frontera con Brasil. Los pioneros de la antropología de Guyana había identificado previamente una amplia gama de tipos de sitios y artefactos (Brown 1873, Farabee 1918, Henderson 1952, Roth 1929) de la región que incluyó alineamientos de rocas, petroglifos y una variedad de herramientas de piedra y de cerámica (Brown 1876). Evans y Meggers (1960) llevaron a cabo el estudio sistemático por primera vez en la zona y determinaron una serie de tipos de sitios y formas de cerámica que sirven como base para la definición de la fase Rupununi. La fase se describe como un patrón de horticultura con ubicación de los sitios que incluyen cuevas, aleros y abiertas moradas sitio áreas o zonas de cría, cementerios y lugares ceremoniales y sitios de petroglifos.

 

La cultura material de la fase de Rupununi incluye una serie de astillas y artefactos de piedra de molienda hechos sobretodo de sienita, cuarcita, arenisca y felsita e incluyen yunques, hachas de garganta, picadoras, martillos, azadas, manos, metates, núcleos, lascas y cuencos de piedra. Los tipos de cerámica  incluyen vasijas planas Kanaku y Rupununi. Fabricadas por técnica de enrollamiento, la cerámica se produce con una variedad de colores en la superficie con un rango de naranja a naranja rojizo a marrón rojizo y se caracteriza por tres formas distintas. Estos incluyen a los tazones fuente poco profundos con paredes casi verticales, bordes directos y labios redondeados, cuencos carenados, jarras con hombros redondeados,  tazones y jarras globulares con paredes redondeadas y curvadas hacia adentro y labios redondeados. La llanura Kanaku parece ser más antigua y se distingue de la llanura Rupununi por la ausencia de un núcleo gris. Los tiestos son típicamente temperados con arena, aunque se ve temperamento cariape ​​ocasionalmente. Las técnicas decorativas incluyen la incisión, aplicaciones, puntuacion, y el uso de hojas blancas y rojas. Los artefactos de cerámica incluyen restos de cuencos, discos, figuras antropomorfas ...

 

Además de los primeros descubrimientos de Evans y Meggers (1960), y Dubelar Berrange (1979), Hanif (1967), Poonai (1970), Goodland (1976) y Williams (1979) han descrito el arte rupestre de la región Aishalton en las sabanas del sur. Williams (1979b, 1985) las investigaciones de petroglifos en el Esequibo y el Kassikaityu forman la base del argumento que los petroglifos fueron importantes en la gestión de la pesca. Un trabajo reciente en el Rupununi ha documentado una mayor variedad de tipos de sitios que incluyen pulidores diversos, talleres líticos, alineaciones variadas de rocas, diversos cementerios y  arte rupestre pictográfico (Plew y Pereira 2000, Plew, Pereira, Mercer y Sundell 2001, Plew, Pereira Saras y 2002, Plew 2005).

.

LEA MAS http://www.centrelink.org/Plew.html

.

 

  1. [PDF] 
    PuebloMakushi (Guyana), Makuxi (Brasil) I.- Identificación Región ...
    atlaspueblosindigenas.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/makushi.pdf Formato de archivo: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Vista rápida
    Nombre del puebloMakushi (Guyana), Makuxi (Brasil). Autodenominación delpueblo. Makuxi. Otros nombres del puebloMakushi. Familia lingüística. Caribe ...
  2. MakushiPueblo de Makushi provincia de Óblast de Kírov. Pueblos ...
    ru.lirondo.com/Óblast-de-Kírov/Makushi Pueblo de Makushi provincia de Óblast de Kírov. Informacion de como llegar aMakushi con su mapa, conoce todas las fiestas de Makushi, visita todos los ...
  1. Wapishana people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wapishana_people - Traducir esta página
    Men came into direct contact not only with Wapishana from other villages but also withIndians of other groups, and later, with non-Indians from the act of ...
    Location - Language - Marriage and family - History
  2. Wapishana Language and the Wapishana Indian Tribe (Wapichana ...
    www.native-languages.org/wapishana.htm - Traducir esta página Wapishana language information and the culture, history and genealogy of theWapishana Indians.

 

 

 

 A Note on a Radiocarbon Date for the Rupununi Phase, Southern Guyana

 

By Mark G. Plew / Boise State University

 

Introduction

One of the unresolved mysteries of the archaeology of the interior savannahs of Guyana is the age of the so-called Rupununi Phase culture. This culture is associated with horticultural peoples who made distinctive pottery. On the basis of ceramic and other artifacts including some dating to the 18th and 19th centuries, the long standing convention is that the phase is associated with historic Makushi and Wapishana populations of the Guyanese interior. The radiocarbon date reported here is the first absolute or chronometric date for the Runpununi Phase. The radiocarbon dertermination confirms the historic age of the phase.

 

The Rupununi Phase of Southern Guyana

During field work in Guyana in the early 1950s, Evans and Meggers (1960) explored the archaeology of the Rupununi savannahs that extend from the Pakaraima Mountains south to the Brazilian border. Early pioneers in Guyanese anthropology had previously identified a range of site and artifact types (Brown 1873, Farabee 1918, Henderson 1952, Roth 1929) from the region that included rock alignments, petroglyphs and a variety of stone and ceramic tools (Brown 1876). Evans and Meggers (1960) conducted the first systematic survey in the area and identified a number of site types and pottery forms that serve as the basis for definition of the Rupununi Phase. The phase is described as a horticultural pattern with site locations that include caves, rockshelters, open site areas habitations/farming areas, cemeteries and ceremonial locations and petroglyph sites.

 

The material culture of the Rupununi phase includes a range of chipped and groundstone artifacts made prodominately from syenite, quartzite, sandstone, and felsite and include anvils, grooved axes, choppers, hammerstones, hoes, manos, metates, cores, flakes and stone bowls. Pottery types include Kanaku and Rupununi Plain vessels. Made by coiling, the pottery occurs in a variety of surface colors with a range of orange to reddish orange to reddish brown and is characterized by three distinct forms. These include shallow to deep bowls with outsloping to almost vertical walls, direct rims and flattened to rounded lips, carinated bowls and jars with sharp to rounded shoulders, and globular bowls and jars with rounded and incurving walls and rounded lips. Kanaku Plain which appears to be the earlier of the two types is distinguished from Rupununi Plain by the absence of a grey core. Sherds are typically sand tempered, though occasional cariape temper occurs. Decorative techniques include incision, appliqué, punctuation, and the use of white and red slips. Ceramic artifacts include pottery rests, disks, shaft polishers, and simple anthropomorphic figurines.

 

In addition to the early discoveries by Evans and Meggers (1960), Dubelar and Berrange (1979), Hanif (1967), Poonai (1970), Goodland (1976) and Williams (1979) have described the rock art of the Aishalton region in the south savannahs. Williams (1979b, 1985) petroglyph surveys on the Essequibo and Kassikaityu form the basis of an argument that petroglyphs were important in fisheries management. Recent work in the Rupununi has documented a greater range of site types that include diverse pollisoirs, lithic workshops, varied rock alignments, diverse cemetery sites and pictographic rock art (Plew and Pereira 2000, Plew, Pereira, Mercer and Sundell 2001, Plew , Pereira and Saras 2002, Plew 2005).

READ MORE http://www.centrelink.org/Plew.html

 

 

 

Typical broad gravure petroglyph common throughout Iwokrama.

.

Groundbreaking archaeological discoveries being made in Guyana

 

[August 15, 2010]

Archaeologists have been making groundbreaking discoveries in Guyana in recent years, including unearthing the remains of a whale, a giant porpoise and a rock fish, all of which could be about 10,000 years old.  Another significant discovery is that of pottery, perhaps as old as 5,000 years, at Kabakaburi in the Pomeroon.

.

 

[20100815mark[5].jpg]

 

Dr Mark Plew, 

 

.

Spearheading these discovery efforts is Dr Mark Plew, Chair of the Archaeology Department at  Boise State University in Idaho.  Over the past few years, he has been one of the lead figures in the Denis Williams Summer School of Anthropology and has led teams comprising both local and overseas personnel into different parts of Guyana for field work.   These excursions, particularly those made over the last three years, have been rewarding for Plew.

.

The remains of the animals were discovered last year at the Wyva Creek Shell Mound in Region One.  A Shell Mound is a prehistoric refuse heap consisting chiefly of the shells of edible molluscs intermingled with evidence of human occupancy. The one at Wyva Creek is said to be one of the largest in Guyana and is believed to be about 6500-7000 years old, Plew told this newspaper during a recent interview.

.

According to Plew, when the bones were first discovered, he first thought that they were those of a giant sloth. But then after the remains were transferred to the USA, a specialist suggested that they may have been those of an elephant – a prospect which Plew was overjoyed about. However, when the bones were subsequently passed on to the British Colombia museum they were determined to be those of a whale, a giant porpoise and a rock fish.  And based on the location on Shell Mound where the remains were found, Plew believes that they could have been there since 10,000 years ago. Preparations are now being made to have all the remains returned to Guyana, since this is where they belong.

.

Plew says that these discoveries are “very, very interesting” since they outline what was happening in Guyana around that time. It is the discovery of the rock fish that Plew is particularly delighted about. The rock fish, he says, is an extremely rare species of which no record exists of it being found in this part of the world.

Explaining how the species could have reached so far inland, Plew believes it could either be that the tides were responsible for the species being transported from the ocean to fresh water inland or it could be that years ago this particular area of land was inundated. According to him, the late Guyanese archaeologist Dr Denis Williams had done research to support the latter theory.

.

Concerning the pottery discovered at Kabakaburi in the Pomeroon, Plew says that the artifacts are among the oldest ever found in the Americas.

The vessels found were of vast variety and included bowls and globular objects, the majority of which were fired and glazed.  Most of the pottery was plain while some had designs on it, Plew says. Importantly, further evidence was found to debunk initial views that the persons who occupied this area had settled there permanently. The new information reveals that the persons here were in fact seasonal visitors to the place.  Plew says too that more data continues to be found which suggests that areas that are now rainforest in territories such as Guyana were once large savannahs.

.

Meanwhile, an expedition by the team to Fairview, Iwokrama, revealed the diversity of Guyana’s archaeological heritage. This area had been explored in the past by Dr Williams and previously in the 1950s by archaeologists Drs Clifford Evans and Betty Meggers with varying findings this newspaper was told.

.

According to Plew, when Williams did an excavation some years ago he discovered some multi-coloured pottery among other things.  The team was hoping to unearth some more items of the kind that Williams found, but while they found bits of pottery their discoveries were not as exciting as those by the Guyanese archaeologist. These discoveries were more in keeping with the earlier reports of Evans and Meggers and according to Plew, while the findings of the duo were “relatively right” they did not adequately describe the “range or variations of pottery.”

An accurate description of the range would indicate that “something very unique was going on in Guyana 1000 years ago or 5000 years ago, Plew says.

.

The archaeologist is concerned at the prehistoric records that have been eroding due to vandalism and attrition, and says that this needs to be addressed.  These have suffered because of the limited infrastructure and resources in this area, especially at the University of Guyana. However, efforts are being made to improve this particularly at the university, he says.

.

“Archaeology is the only academic discipline… because it studies material things, that is in a position to talk about long term cultural change,” Plew says as he underscores the importance of this area of study.  And according to him, archaeologists are usually ahead of their time, adding that they “were talking about deforestation about 100 years ago.” Plew has been visiting Guyana for the past 25 years after being intrigued by the archaeological discoveries that were happening in South America. This interest intensified while in Graduate School and he initially targeted Brazil, but things didn’t work out there as he had hoped and he subsequently forged a relationship with the University of Guyana.  He says that “Guyana is pivotal” to the cause of archaeology especially when chronicling the development of the New World.

“Guyana is 75 per cent unexplored,” he says. According to him, the field work will continue and they are looking to explore the Rupununi in greater detail.  He says that so far some “tantalizing” discoveries have been made, including the uncovering of ancient burial sites and various forms of rock art. He hopes to lead more teams to unearth more gems in this vast “unexplored” land.

 

Author: Mark McGowan | Source: Stabroek News [August 15, 2010]

 

http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2010/08/groundbreaking-archaeological.html#.UBFzN2GomBU

 

 

Watercolor (made ca. 1842) of round Maopityan house in Guyana.

 

Maopityan round house , watercolor, 1842

 

      

 

 Antiquity Vol 77 No 298 December 2003

 

Archaeology in the Iwokrama Rainforest, Guyana

 

Mark G. Plew

 



Mark PlewDr. Mark G. Plew is Professor and Chair of the Department of Anthropology at Boise State University. He has worked in Guyana for over twenty years. He recently published The Archaeology of Guyana. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1400.

Mark Plew's Faculty webpage is athttp://anthro.boisestate.edu/plew.shtml

      http://www.centrelink.org/Plew.html

Compartir este post

Repost 0
Published by cinabrio - en archaelogy
Comenta este artículo

Comentarios

Présenta

  • : cinabrio blog
  • cinabrio blog
  • : Ecología y sostenibilidad socioambiental, énfasis en conservación de ríos y ecosistemas, denuncia de impacto de megaproyectos. Todo esto es indesligable de la política y por ello esta también se observa. Ecology, social and environmental sustainability, emphasis on conservation of rivers and ecosystems, denounces impact of megaprojects. All this is inseparable from politics, for it, the politics is also evaluated.
  • Contacto

Perfil

  • Malcolm Allison H malcolm.mallison@gmail.com
  • Biólogo desde hace más de treinta años, desde la época en que aún los biólogos no eran empleados de los abogados ambientalistas. Actualmente preocupado …alarmado en realidad, por el LESIVO TRATADO DE(DES)INTEGRACIÓN ENERGÉTICA CON BRASIL
  • Biólogo desde hace más de treinta años, desde la época en que aún los biólogos no eran empleados de los abogados ambientalistas. Actualmente preocupado …alarmado en realidad, por el LESIVO TRATADO DE(DES)INTEGRACIÓN ENERGÉTICA CON BRASIL

Recherche

Liens