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8 diciembre 2012 6 08 /12 /diciembre /2012 01:07

 

Artist and filmmaker Zhang Bingjian sits in his Beijing studio in front of his Hall of Fame — portraits of corrupt Chinese officials. He has commissioned portraits of 1,600 officials convicted of corruption.

  

 

 

 

 

La corrupción asfixia China
 

 

El artista Zhang Bingjian retrató a 1.600 políticos implicados en delitos económicos para denunciar uno de los problemas más graves de su país

 

 25 de noviembre de 2012

 

 

 

Zhang Bingjian, ante algunos de los retratos que componen su Galería de la Vergüenza.


No busquen en estas paredes retratos de reyes, postales costumbristas o paisajes sobrecogedores. En esta Galería de la Vergüenza se exponen rostros de corruptos. Políticos y funcionarios chinos condenados por malversar dinero público. Esta instalación de arte contemporáneo busca llamar la atención de la sociedad. «Aspiro a hacer pensar a la gente. ¿Qué esta ocurriendo en China? ¿Por qué tanta gente lo hace? ¿Cómo detenerlo?», se pregunta el artista Zhang Bingjian, al tiempo que reconoce con amargura que su proyecto parece lejos de poder darse por terminado.

China se mantiene en el puesto 78 en el índice de percepción de la corrupción que analiza a 171 países, elaborado por la onenegé independiente Transparencia Internacional. El propio Hu Jintao dijo en su último discurso como jefe del Partido que «si no somos capaces de gestionar bien este problema, podría causar el derrumbe y la caída del Estado». Las cifras oficiales elevan a 660.000 los funcionarios y políticos investigados por corrupción en los ultimos cinco años.

«Han robado dinero público y estoy de acuerdo con el castigo. No me importa la sentencia. Ese no es mi trabajo. Es el trabajo de la justicia. El mío es pintarlos y denunciar la corrupción», asegura el artista.

La idea surgió hace tres años, cuando vio en las noticias que unos 5.000 funcionarios habían sido procesados el año anterior. La reacción de Zhang fue inmediata. «El presidente Mao dijo que los políticos deberían servir a la gente, pero ahora ellos están robando el dinero de la gente, del pueblo. Es dinero público. Me pareció vergonzoso y me puse en marcha».

Todo aquel que visita la instalación pregunta por los ladrones más famosos y, aunque para Zhang son todos iguales, sin duda destaca a Xu Zongheng, exalcalde de Shenzhen, la tercera ciudad más grande del país. Se le acusó de recibir sobornos por parte de una compañía de materiales de construcción y de funcionarios de bajo nivel que buscaban ascensos. En total, unos tres millones de euros. Xu fue condenado a la pena capital, aunque finalmente su sentencia fue conmutada por cadena perpetua.

Porque no todas las historias terminan en el corredor de la muerte. A la mayor parte de los 24.000 miembros del Partido juzgados desde 2007 se les aplicaron sanciones. Casi 40.000 millones de euros pertenecientes al Estado fueron robados por unos 4.000 funcionarios chinos, depositados o invertidos en el extranjero desde hace 30 años, cuando la economía de China se abrió al mundo. Cifras apabullantes que atormentan la conciencia patriótica de Zhang.

 

Encargos en Dafen

Para poner en marcha su proyecto, cuenta con la inestimable ayuda de los pintores de la localidad de Dafen, al sur de China, donde se producen el 60% de las réplicas pictóricas de todo el planeta. «Yo los encargo a gente que hace pinturas muy baratas. El método de Dafen simboliza la exportación de la imitación china, el arte de mercado, la cultura en serie. Miles de retratos de la Mona Lisa que cuelgan en las paredes de medio mundo han salido de Dafen. Ellos lo imitan todo, pero con los corruptos yo les dejo que los pinten según su visión personal. Que los deformen, que los pinten feos, como quieran. Es una especie de venganza hacia esos funcionarios», cuenta.

Todos los cuadros están pintados en color rosa, presente en el billete de 100 yuan, el más grande del país y equivalente a unos 8 euros. Responden a unas medidas de 50x60 centímetros, el estándar del retrato chino tradicional, el tamaño mediante el cual se representó a las autoridades durante siglos. El poder de la administración también está presente en el sello, imprescindible símbolo chino desde la época imperial. Los cuadros están sellados en el canto, donde figura el nombre y el delito que cometió el condenado.

 

 

 

 

     

 

  Chile es el más transparente // transparenciainternacional.com

 

  La trama de corrupción del jefe de la Confederación Española de Organizaciones Empresariales

 

 

Los hombres más ricos de China

 

 

La nueva jefatura china / englishblog.com

 

 

A Portrait Of Chinese Corruption, In Rosy Pink


 June 29, 2012  by Louisa Lim


Corruption is usually thought to be a bad thing. But in China, the answer is no longer crystal clear.

For decades, the country's Communist Party has declared that corruption threatens its very survival. But there are signs that this is changing. Recently, the state-run media have begun arguing that corruption can't be stamped out, so it should be contained to acceptable levels. And some corruption appears to be tacitly condoned.

At an artist's studio in Beijing, dozens of pink-tinted portraits hang in neat lines: beaming men in ties and glasses, the very picture of the archetypal Communist apparatchik. Their portraits are painted rosy pink — the color of money, or at least China's 100-yuan bill.

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Hidden But Well-Known Rule

The collection of paintings is called the Hall of Fame. But in fact it's a wall of shame: Each is a Chinese official found guilty of corruption.

The gallery of rogues is the brainchild of artist and filmmaker Zhang Bingjian. So far, he has commissioned 1,600 portraits of corrupt Chinese cadres.

 

 

  "This is the beauty of the piece," he says. "It's open-ended. You don't know when it will be finished. Probably 10,000, 100,000, who knows? ... There are many new famous people coming every day."

As is fitting for the workshop of the world, Zhang commissions other artists to paint the pink-tinted portraits cheaply, some of them more skillfully than others. Paradoxically, the cumulative effect of tier upon tier of faces is a sort of faceless assembly line of corruption.

"If you want to do business here, even if you want to find a good school for your kids, you have to corrupt somebody," says Zhang. "If you want to find a good hospital for your mother, you have to give money to somebody under the table. ... It's like a hidden rule."

The Chinese public hears headlines about fighting corruption every day, and a new four-book series extolling the morality of government officials has just been issued as a new plank in the fight against graft.

But in fact, official figures from the National Bureau of Statistics show fewer corruption investigations than a decade ago. In 2010 — the last year for which figures are publicly available — just 3,603 people were investigated for the misappropriation of public funds by the Chinese procurator's office, compared with 11,068 people investigated on the same charge 10 years earlier. The number of corruption investigations by the procurator's office has declined by 26 percent over the decade.

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Corruption cases under investigation

 

 

Measuring Corruption

An official People's Bank of China report posted online last year, then hastily deleted, estimated that around $125 billion had been stashed overseas since the mid-1990s, by at least 16,000 officials, who had subsequently fled overseas.

 

 

 

 

- Zhang Bingjian, Beijing artist and filmmaker

Beijing's Tsinghua University has an Anti-Corruption and Governance Research Center. Since August 2009, it has developed a China Corruption Measurement Index. But requests for an interview on the subject were turned down by the professor in charge, Cheng Wenhao, due to the "sensitivity" of the topic.

"It's corruption of the worst kind," says Minxin Pei, professor of government at Claremont McKenna College in California, who says the corruption has become collective and collusive in nature. "In academic jargon, we call this 'looting.' "

A few years ago, Pei made a very rough estimate of the cost of corruption in China, conservatively speaking, putting it at about 3 percent of GDP — in line with a 2004 World Bank study about levels of corruption worldwide.

In a $7 trillion economy like China's, Pei says that would amount to more than $200 billion of wealth stolen every year.

 

 

 

  "As long as the economy keeps growing, it may be able to finance the cost of corruption," Pei says. "The real challenge is when the economy slows down, then corruption becomes a real drain on society."

There are signs that the economy is cooling now, with growth for the first quarter of 2012 slowing to 8.1 percent, the slackest pace in three years.

Choosing 'A Lesser Evil'?

But the state-run media now appears to be sending mixed messages on corruption. An editorial published in May in the Global Times argued that stamping out corruption would send the whole country into "pain and confusion." This caused a firestorm online, after being posted under the headline "China Must Permit Moderate Corruption, the Public Should Understand," which was criticized as "misleading" and "malicious" by Hu Xijin, the paper's editor-in-chief.

However, the editorial did note: "There is no way in any country to 'root out' corruption. Most critical is containing it to a level acceptable to the public. And to do this is, for China, especially difficult."
 
It was followed last week by a People's Daily editorial, which labeled it "extremist" to criticize China just because corruption exists.

"Now the party probably thinks corruption is less of a threat than losing legitimacy by exposing how corrupt this government is," Pei says. "In other words, it has to choose a lesser evil."

China touts a harmonious society, but growing online anger at corruption is souring that harmony. Among retirees having their daily sing-a-long session in a Beijing park, however, there's surprising tolerance toward corruption, which is seen as a fact of life.

"No matter which dynasty, these problems have always happened," says singer Xu Yonghua. "You have to look at this fairly, not judging it with hate."

 

 

Zhang has already commissioned 1,600 portraits of corrupt officials. They are painted by different artists in southern China.

 

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The Upside To Corruption

According to Pei, government statistics show only 3 percent of officials investigated by the Communist Party's anti-graft watchdog are handed over to the judicial authorities. So, only a tiny minority are punished. And while there is discussion about corruption, artist Zhang Bingjian can't find anywhere to show his work.

"I tried to contact galleries, museum, no response. People get scared, even me, you know. It's understandable. Timing is not right to show this piece," Zhang says. "Fortunately we get Internet. People will start to know that."

But Zhang has already been ordered to take his pictures down from his blog. Despite this, he says, his Hall of Fame shouldn't be seen as an indictment of China. The fact that these cases are made public, he believes, makes this a work not of desperation but of hope.

"Before, we were cheated without knowing," he says. "Now, we know we are cheated. This is the progress we made."

 

  http://www.npr.org/2012/06/29/155773618/a-portrait-of-chinese-corruption-in-rosy-pink

 

 

 

 

Mo Yan with two medals

Nobel Prize Winner Mo Yan with two medals

Mo Yan
 
Guan Moye más conocido por el seudónimo de Mo Yan, es un novelista y escritor chino cuento. Ha sido referido por Donald Morrison del TIME como "una de los más famosos, muchas veces prohibido y ampliamente pirateado de todos los escritores chinos", y por Jim Leach como la respuesta china a Franz Kafka o Joseph Heller. Él es el más conocido para los lectores occidentales por su novela 1987 Clan Rojo del Sorgo que se adaptó más tarde para el cine. En 2012, Mo fue galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Literatura por su obra como escritor ", que con un realismo alucinante combina los cuentos populares, la historia y lo contemporáneo

Mo Yan 
 
Guan Moye better known by the pen name Mo Yan, is a Chinese novelist and short story writer. He has been referred by Donald Morrison of U.S. news magazine TIME as "one of the most famous, oft-banned and widely pirated of all Chinese writers" and by Jim Leach as the Chinese answer to Franz Kafka or Joseph Heller. He is best known to Western readers for his 1987 novel Red Sorghum Clan, in which the Red Sorghum and Sorghum Wine volumes were later adapted for the film Red Sorghum. In 2012, Mo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work as a writer "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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