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15 junio 2011 3 15 /06 /junio /2011 02:10

After 40 Years, the Complete Pentagon Papers.

 

Daniel Ellsberg descubrió que tanto la Administración de Kennedy como la de Johnson engañaron a la opinión pública sobre la guerra de Vietnam, desde los ataques del Golfo de Tonkin hasta el bombardeo de Camboya y Laos pasando por las declaraciones de Johnson en 1964 que aseguraban que se estaba procediendo a una salida del conflicto cuando en realidad se agravaba el compromiso en la guerra.

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Daniel Ellsberg, frente al tribunal federal en 1971, fue acusado de 12 cargos de delitos graves como consecuencia de la filtración a la prensa de Papeles del Pentágono, los cargos fueron retirados en 1973. El caso guarda paralelismos con las filtraciones de WIKILEAKS. El escándalo provocó que tanto Ellsberg como el Times acabasen en los tribunales. A Ellsberg se le acusó de espionaje pero los cargos fueron retirados. Y el Tribunal Supremo acabó dando la razón al rotativo de Nueva York en una decisión histórica en la que prevaleció la Primera Enmienda, el derecho a la libertad de información.

Daniel Ellsberg, outside a federal courthouse in 1971, faced 12 felony counts as a result of his leak of the Pentagon Papers; the charges were dismissed in 1973.

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El teniente William Calley fue condenado por múltiples asesinatos a cadena perpetua por un Tribunal Militar en el caso de la Masacre de My Lai (1971)

My Lai Massacre o 1971 Lt William Calley convicted of multiple murders and sentenced to life imprisonment by military court 

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EE UU publica los Papeles del Pentágono sobre la guerra de Vietnam

Los documentos desclasificados prueban las revelaciones de engaños sobre el conflicto que reveló 'The New York Times' en 1971

YOLANDA MONGE | Washington

14-06-2011 http://wap.elpais.com/index.php?module=elp_gen&page=elp_gen_noticia&idNoticia=20110613elpepuint_16.Tes&seccion=int

Cuarenta años después se confirma lo que ya se filtró en 1971, que dos Administraciones distintas de Estados Unidos mintieron a sus ciudadanos sobre la guerra de Vietnam. Aquella revelación, que entonces se filtró primero por el diario The New York Times y luego por otros periódicos, queda ahora probada con la salida a la luz de las 7.000 páginas de documentos desclasificados por el Departamento de Defensa denominados Papeles del Pentágono. Excepto por 11 palabras que siguen tachadas y permanecerán desconocidas para el gran público.

Podría decirse que los Papeles del Pentágono y Daniel Ellsberg son -en los años setenta y la edad de la fotocopiadora- los antepasados de Wikileaks y Julian Assange -en pleno siglo XXI y la era de Internet.

Ellsberg, analista en nómina del grupo de estudios (think tank) Rand Corporation -organización que fue contratada por el Pentágono para realizar una serie de análisis secretos sobre la guerra-, descubrió que tanto la Administración de Kennedy como la de Johnson engañaron a la opinión pública sobre la guerra de Vietnam, desde los ataques del Golfo de Tonkin hasta el bombardeo de Camboya y Laos pasando por las declaraciones de Johnson en 1964 que aseguraban que se estaba procediendo a una salida del conflicto cuando en realidad se preparaba una escalada. Todo era una fabricación para implicar más al país en un conflicto que perdió y cuyas cicatrices siguen sin cerrarse. El presidente Richard Nixon no estuvo implicado en los Papeles del Pentágono aunque dos de sus cercanos colaboradores intentaron un robo frustrado con el que buscaban información para desacreditar la salud mental de Ellsberg.

Ellsberg, quien trabajó durante dos años en la embajada de EEUU en Vietnam, conoció de primera mano que era imposible que su país ganase aquel conflicto. Tras mucho elucubrar una salida a la contienda y contactar con diferentes grupos de defensores de la paz y anti Vietnam concluyó que la única manera de hacer reaccionar a la sociedad y a la Casa Blanca era filtrando los documentos que el Pentágono había preparado durante años y que oficialmente se llamaban Relaciones Estados Unidos-Vietnam, 1945-1967: Un estudio preparado por el Departamento de Defensa y que fue solicitado por el entonces secretario de Defensa Robert McNamara. En esos 7.000 folios, funcionarios de los departamentos de Estado y de Defensa documentaron al detalle la historia previa a la guerra y el proceso de decisiones en Washington. Ellsberger tardó días en copiar los textos y finalmente ofreció el resultado al New York Times y luego a otros diarios.

Desde hoy, la documentación completa se puede consultar en la sede del Archivo Nacional que existe en College Park (Maryland, afueras de Washington) así como en tres bibliotecas presidenciales.

El escándalo provocó que tanto Ellsberg como el Times acabasen en los tribunales. A Ellsberg se le acusó de espionaje pero los cargos fueron retirados. Y el Tribunal Supremo acabó dando la razón al rotativo de Nueva York en una decisión histórica en la que prevaleció la Primera Enmienda, el derecho a la libertad de información.

Con la guerra de Vietnam (1964-1975), Estados Unidos intentó frenar lo que en Washington se denominaba la Teoría del Dominó: Los avances del comunismo preocupaban casi más que el fin de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Países como Malasia, Indonesia o Filipinas habían estado muy cerca de caer del lado comunista; ya lo habían hecho China, Vietnam del Norte, Birmania, Cuba y todas las naciones europeas bajo la ocupación soviética. Estados Unidos temía quedar rodeada de una constelación comunista de la que Vietnam sería una pieza más de una cadena. El caos en el que se sumió EEUU en Vietnam ha dejado amplias lecciones para la historia. EEUU perdió casi 60.000 hombres. Vietnam contaba con una cifra de tres millones y medio entre muertos y desaparecidos.

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After 40 Years, the Complete Pentagon Papers

 
Donal F. Holway/The New York Times
By MICHAEL COOPER and SAM ROBERTS
Published: June 7, 2011

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/08/us/08pentagon.html?_r=1

It may be a first in the annals of government secrecy: Declassifying documents to mark the anniversary of their leak to the press. But that is what will happen Monday, when the federal government plans to finally release the secret government study of the Vietnam War known as the Pentagon Papers 40 years after it was first published by The New York Times.

 

Leon Neal/Agence France-Presse -- Getty Images

 

Daniel Ellsberg, the military analyst who leaked the Pentagon Papers, said the report should not have been secret even in 1971.

At first blush, it sounds like the release of one of the worst-kept secrets in history — finally unlocking the barn door four decades after the horses bolted. The study, after all, has already been published by The Times and other newspapers, resulting in a landmark First Amendment decision by the Supreme Court. It has been released in book form more than once. But it turns out that those texts have been incomplete: When all 7,000 pages are released Monday, officials say, the study can finally be read in its original form.

That it took until the era of WikiLeaks for the government to declassify the Pentagon Papers struck some participants as, to say the least, curious.

“It’s absurd,” said Daniel Ellsberg, the former RAND Corporation analyst who worked on the report and later provided it to The Times. He said Tuesday that the report should not have been secret even in 1971, when newspapers first published it, adding: “The reasons are very clearly domestic political reasons, not national security at all. The reasons for the prolonged secrecy are to conceal the fact that so much of the policy making doesn’t bear public examination. It’s embarrassing, or even incriminating.”

When Mr. Ellsberg first leaked the study, he had to take it volume by volume out of a safe in his office and ferry it to a small advertising company owned by the girlfriend of a colleague who had a Xerox machine. Page by page, they copied it in all-night sessions. Now the National Archives and Records Administration will scan it and — behold — it will be online quickly.

Leslie H. Gelb, the president emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations, who was the director of the task force that wrote the report, said he was surprised it had remained officially classified all these years, after so much of it had been made public. “It should have been declassified a long, long time ago,” he said.

But the secrecy has persisted. Timothy Naftali, the director of the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum, said that when he recently put together an exhibit on Watergate, he wanted to display just the blue cover of the Pentagon Papers report. “I was told that the cover was classified,” he said, adding that he was astounded.

There is intrigue even in the release itself. Archivists touched off a new round of feverish speculation when they originally announced that 11 never-before-published words of the 7,000-page report would remain redacted all these years later, only to reverse themselves and announce Tuesday that the 11 words would be published after all.

So what were the mysterious 11 words?

Archivists originally joked that they would hold a Mad Libs contest, to see who could guess them. But even though the 11 words will be published after all, they have not said what they were — sparking a bit of a guessing game. Thomas S. Blanton, the director of the National Security Archive at George Washington University, said he guessed the words had something to do with intelligence capabilities, or references to people who are still alive who had been sources, or North Vietnamese diplomats.

“The criticism of their redacting the 11 words in the first place is that it’s self-defeating,” Mr. Blanton said. “You’re just flagging them for everyone to identify what they are.”

The bigger question is what new material will be made public for the first time. Several archivists who have seen the complete report declined invitations to repeat history and leak the full version of the Pentagon Papers to The Times. But there are some indications of what will be in it.

Until now, the complete text of the report — officially known as the Report of the O.S.D. Vietnam Task Force — has been as elusive to researchers as a clean copy of Hamlet has been to generations of Shakespeare scholars. The version Mr. Ellsberg provided to the press was incomplete. A book published by Beacon Press, based on a copy from Senator Mike Gravel, Democrat of Alaska, had missing sections. And a version published by the government was heavily redacted.

When Mr. Ellsberg originally leaked the Pentagon Papers, he did so because he wanted to stop the Vietnam War — so he left out sections about peace negotiations with North Vietnam. “I omitted them because I thought that Nixon would use the release as an excuse for breaking off negotiations with North Vietnam,” he said in an interview. “I frankly didn’t want to give him that excuse.”

A version of this article appeared in print on June 8, 2011, on page A12 of the New York edition with the headline: After 40 Years, the Complete Pentagon Papers.

Daniel Ellsberg speaks to reporters outside the Federal Building in Los Angeles on Jan. 17, 1971. Ellsberg's co-defendant, Anthony Russo is at center right. Forty years after the explosive leak of the Pentagon Papers, a secret government study chronicling deception and misadventure in U.S. conduct of the Vietnam War, the report is coming out in its entirety on Monday, June 13, 2011. The 7,000-page report was the WikiLeaks disclosure of its time, a sensational breach of government confidentiality that shook Richard Nixon's presidency and prompted a Supreme Court fight that advanced press freedom. (AP Photo) www.grandforksherald.com/.../

usbuzzblog4.blogspot.com/2011/06/pentagon-pap...

After 40 Years, the Complete Pentagon Papers //

Published: June 7, 2011

(Page 2 of 2)Those sections about the negotiations had been declassified for years. But they will now appear in the context in which they were first written, along with several volumes that have not been published, including a section on the United States training the Vietnamese national army, a statistical survey of the war from 1965 to 1967 and some supporting documents. 

Tyrone Dukes/The New York Times

Preparing pages for the July 1, 1971, issue of The New York Times, after a ruling by the Supreme Court allowed publication of the top-secret study to resume. 

The July 1, 1971, front page of The New York Times. 

Mr. Gelb said he thought the depth of the reports had been exaggerated over time, and noted that his team was extremely limited in what it was able to draw on to produce them. 

“They are almost catch-as-catch-can studies based on available documents,” he said. “This thing was not meant to be in any sense a definitive history, or even a definitive bureaucratic history. It was just a history put together by very smart guys on the run.” 

But Mr. Ellsberg said there were still plenty of lessons to be drawn. 

“The rerelease of the Pentagon Papers is very timely, if anyone were to read it,” he said. 

He said they demonstrate the wisdom of giving war-making powers to Congress — a power that he lamented has been increasingly usurped by the executive branch. 

“It seems to me that what the Pentagon Papers really demonstrated 40 years ago was the price of that practice,” he said. “Which is that letting a small group of men in secret in the executive branch make these decisions — initiate them secretly, carry them out secretly and manipulate Congress, and lie to Congress and the public as to why they’re doing it and what they’re doing — is a recipe for, a guarantee of Vietnams and Iraqs and Libyas, and in general foolish, reckless, dangerous policies.” 

Mr. Ellsberg said he wished more people would come forward to release information that could stop these wars, praising Pfc. Bradley E. Manning, the military intelligence analyst who is jailed on charges that he leaked a trove of government files to WikiLeaks. 

“If he did what he’s accused of, then he’s my hero, because I’ve been waiting for somebody to do that for 40 years,” Mr. Ellsberg said. “And no one has.” 

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