Pair of hartebeest grazing near the water in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania
Alcelaphus buselaphus, Ngorongoro, Tanzania
-----------------------------------------------------------------Tame ibex, addax, and hartebeest
Fossil of Damalops, an extinct mammal -- Took the photo at Natural History Museum, London
1 Bubal Hartebeest 2 West African hartebeest 3 Tora hartebeest 4 Neumann’s hartebeest 5 Swayne’s hartebeest 6 Coke’s hartebeest 7 Cape hartebeest 8 Jackson’s hartebeest 9 Lichtensteins’s hartebeest
The book of antelopes (1894) Bubalis caama
The book of antelopes (1894) Bubalis busephalus
Alcelaphus buselaphus herd in the Pendjari Nationalpark Benin, West Africa
The genus Alcelaphus emerged about 4.4 million years ago in a clade, with Damalops, Numidocapra, Rabaticeras, Megalotragus, Oreonagor, and Connochaetes as the other members. An analysis using phylogeographic patterns within the hartebeest suggested a possible origin of the antelope in eastern Africa. The species is believed to have later spread into the rest of the continent. Phylogenetic analyses showed an early genetic diversification to have occurred in the southern and northern hartebeest lineages. The northern lineage has further diverged into eastern and western lineages, most probably as a result of the expanding central African rainforest belt and subsequent contraction of savannah habitats during a period of global warming. These major events throughout the hartebeest's evolution are strongly related to climatic factors, which could play a vital role in learning more of the species' evolutionary history. Fossils of the red hartebeest have been found in Elandsfontein, Cornelia and Florisbad in South Africa, as well as in Kabwe in Zambia.
Hartebeest are known since the Natufian and Neolithic times well into the Bronze and Iron Ages. In Israel, hartebeest remains were found in open landscape, northern Negev, Shephelah, and Sharon Plain. Latest fossils have been traced in Tel Lachish. It was originally limited to the open country of the southernmost regions of southern Levant. The hartebeest was probably hunted in Egypt, which affected the numbers in Levant, and disconnected it from its main population in Africa.
Tame ibex, addax, and hartebeest
* Malcolm Allison H 2014